All keywords

The keyword system used is based on GEMET (GEneral Multilingual Environmental Thesaurus) - a thesaurus system developed for the European Topic Centre on Catalogue of Data Sources and the European Environment Agency. It contains over 5,000 keywords, organised in a hierarchical structure under 40 themes.

You can view and explore all themes and keywords here.

Search by keyword

Filter the keyword list by entering text into the filter box e.g. fire. Then, in the filtered list, you can see how many records have that keyword attributed. To view these, click on the keyword. The page that opens lists all records tagged with the selected keyword; you can filter these further using the search form.

Keyword Description Used by how many records
100007 abandoned industrial site

Site that cannot be used for any purpose, being contaminated by pollutants, not necessarily radioactive. (Source: RRDA)


1
100008 abandoned vehicle

A vehicle that has been discarded in the environment, urban or otherwise, often found wrecked, destroyed, damaged or with a major component part stolen or missing. (Source: ISEP / MDM)


0
110193 abiotic environment

The non-living components of the environment (rocks, minerals, soil, water and climate). (Source: WRIGHT)


2
100011 abiotic factor

Physical, chemical and other non-living environmental factors. They are essential for living plants and animals of an ecosystem, providing the essential elements and nutrients that are necessary for growth. The abiotic elements also include the climatic and pedologic components of the ecosystem. (Source: LBC / WRIGHT)


12
100013 absorption (exposure)

The taking in of fluids or other substances by cells or tissues. (Source: LANDY)


0
100091 acceptable daily intake

The measurement of the amount of any chemical substance that can be safely consumed by a human being in a day. Calculations are usually based on the maximum level of a substance that can be fed to animals without producing any harmful effects. This is divided by a safety factor to allow for the differences between animals and humans and to take account of the variation in human diets. (Source: WRIGHT)


0
100020 acceptable risk level

Level of risk judged to be outweighed by corresponding benefits or one that is of such a degree that it is considered to pose minimal potential for adverse effects. (Source: EPAGLOa)


0
100022 access road

Any street or narrow stretch of paved surface that leads to a specific destination, such as a main highway. (Source: RHW)


11
110980 access to administrative documents

The legal right of access to administrative documents or the opportunity to avail oneself of the same. (Source: BLACKa)


0
100023 access to culture

The ability, right and permission to approach and use, or the general availability of resources that transmit the beliefs, customs, artistic activity and knowledge of a people. (Source: PPP / RHW)


3
103477 access to information

The ability, right and permission to approach and use, or the general availability of resources that convey knowledge. (Source: RHW)


24
113285 access to the courts

The right of citizens to access to the organs of the governments where justice is administered. (Source: BLACK)


0
100024 access to the sea [No description is listed]

2
100025 accident

An unexpected occurrence, failure or loss with the potential for harming human life, property or the environment. (Source: TOE / HMD)


0
100030 accident source

The cause or origin of an unexpected occurrence, failure or loss with the potential for harming human life, property or the environment. (Source: OED / HMD)


0
100028 accidental release of organisms

Genetically engineered organisms that are released in the environment by mistake; once released they may exhibit some previously unknown pathogenicity, might take over from some naturally occurring bacteria (possibly having other positive functions which thus are lost) or pass on some unwanted trait to such indigenous bacteria. There is also concern that an uncontrolled genetic mutation could produce a form with hazardous consequences for the environment. (Source: WPRa)


0
110002 accounting

Method of recording all the transactions affecting the financial condition of a business or organization.


5
113239 accounting system

The system of setting up, maintaining, and auditing the books of a firm and of analyzing its financial status and operating results.


0
100036 accumulation in body tissues [No description is listed]

0
100038 accumulator

A rechargeable device for storing electrical energy in the form of chemical energy, consisting of one or more separate secondary cells. (Source: CED)


0
100052 acid

A compound capable of transferring a hydrogen ion in solution. (Source: MGH)


3
100042 acid deposition

A type of pollution which washes out of the atmosphere as dilute sulphuric and nitric acids. It tends to be a regional rather than a global phenomenon, linked to particular industrial activities and meteorological conditions. It includes rain, more than normally acidic snow, mist, sleet, fog, gas and dry particles. It upsets the balance of nature, disrupting ecosystems, and destroys forests and woodlands, plants and crops; kills aquatic life by altering the chemical balance of lakes and rivers and corrodes building materials and fabrics. The pollutants are caused principally by discharges from power station chimneys of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides released by burning fossil fuels, coal and oil. (Source: WRIGHT)


0
100051 acid rain

Rain having a pH less than 5.6. The acidity results from chemical reactions occurring when water, sulphur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides, generally released by industrial processes, are chemically transformed into sulphuric and nitric acids. (Source: DUNSTE)


0
100044 acidification

Addition of an acid to a solution until the pH falls below 7. (Source: MGH)


0
100047 acidity

The state of being acid that is of being capable of transferring a hydrogen ion in solution. (Source: MGHa)


0
100048 acidity degree

The amount of acid present in a solution, often expressed in terms of pH. (Source: CEDa)


0
111927 acoustic comfort [No description is listed]

0
100054 acoustic filter

A device employed to reject sound in a particular range of frequencies while passing sound in another range of frequencies. (Source: MGH)


0
100055 acoustic insulation

The process of preventing the transmission of sound by surrounding with a nonconducting material. (Source: CED)


0
100057 acoustic level

Physical quantity of sound measured, usually expressed in decibels. (Source: KORENa)


2
100059 acoustic property

The characteristics found within a structure that determine the quality of sound in its relevance to hearing. (Source: KOREN)


1
111896 acoustical quality

The characteristics of a confined space that determines its ability to enable music and speech to be heard clearly within it. (Source: UVAROV)


1
100060 acoustics

The science of the production, transmission and effects of sound. (Source: MGH)


10
100079 act

1) Something done voluntarily by a person, and of such a nature that certain legal consequences attach to it. 2) Documents, decrees, edicts, laws, judgments, etc. (Source: WESTS)


8
100066 actinide

A group of 15 radioactive elements some of which occur naturally while others are produced in nuclear reactions. They include plutonium, americium and neptunium. The health hazard presented by the actinides, if they are released into the environment, comes from the potency of their radioactive characteristics. They are alpha-emitters, and therefore can cause intense localized damage in tissues if absorbed into the body. (Source: WRIGHT)


0
100068 actinium

A radioactive element of the actinide series, occurring as a decay product of uranium. It is used as an alpha particle source and in neutron production. (Source: CED)


0
100071 action group

A collection of persons united to address specific sociopolitical or socioeconomic concerns. (Source: RHW)


1
100072 activated carbon

A powdered, granular or pelleted form of amorphous carbon characterized by a very large surface area per unit volume because of an enormous number of fine pores. (Source: LANDY)


0
100073 activated sludge

Sludge that has been aerated and subjected to bacterial action; used to speed breakdown of organism matter in raw sewage during secondary waste treatment. (Source: LANDY)


0
100077 active participation

The involvement, either by an individual or a group of individuals, in their own governance or other activities, with the purpose of exerting influence. (Source: RHW)


4
110922 active population

The number of people available and eligible for employment within a given enterprise, region or nation. (Source: ODE)


0
100081 adaptable species [No description is listed]

66
100083 adaptation period [No description is listed]

52
100087 addition polymer

A polymer formed by the chain addition of unsaturated monomer molecules, such as olefins, with one another without the formation of a by-product, as water; examples are polyethylene, polypropylene and polystyrene. (Source: MGH)


0
100086 additional packaging

Additional packaging around the normal sales packaging. For example as protection against theft or for the purpose of advertising; the customer may leave the additional packaging in the shop for waste collection. (Source: RRDA)


0
100088 additive

Substances mixed in small quantities with another product to modify its chemical or physical state. Additives are used to make food look visually more attractive, in the case of colouring agents, as well as to preserve and extend the life of the product. (Source: WRIGHT)


0
102760 adequate food supply

A quantity of nutriments that meets fundamental nutritional requirements and is provided to a person, group or community on a continuing basis. (Source: NOV)


1
100090 adhesive

Substance used for sticking objects together, such as glue, cement, or paste. (Source: CED)


0
1 Administration [No description is listed]

0
100095 administration

The management or direction of the affairs of a public or private office, business or organization. (Source: RHW)


3
100100 administrative body

Any governmental agency or organization charged with managing and implementing regulations, laws and government policies. (Source: BLD)


2
114932 administrative boundary

A limit or border of a geographic area under the jurisdiction of some governmental or managerial entity. (Source: RHW)


219
100103 administrative competence

The skill, knowledge, qualification, capacity or authority to manage or direct the affairs of a public or private office, business or organization. (Source: RHW)


0
111568 administrative court (administration)

An independent, specialized judicial tribunal in which judges or officials are authorized by a government agency to conduct hearings and render decisions in proceedings between the government agency and the persons, businesses or other organizations that it regulates. (Source: BLD)


0
110981 administrative deed

Any formal and legitimate step taken or decision made on matters of policy by a chief or other top-level officer within an organization. (Source: DAM)


0
100105 administrative fiat

An authoritative decree, sanction or order issued from an office with executive or managerial authority, without necessarily having the force of law or its equivalent. (Source: RHW / BLD)


0
111497 administrative instructions

Education in the theories and practices of managing an office, business or organization. (Source: RHW)


0
100107 administrative jurisdiction

The extent, power or territory in which an office with executive or managerial authority administers justice or declares judgments. (Source: RHW / BLD)


77
100108 administrative law

Body of law created by administrative agencies in the form of rules, regulations, orders and decisions to carry out regulatory powers and duties of such agencies. (Source: BLACK)


33
113231 administrative occupation [No description is listed]

0
113289 administrative organisation [No description is listed]

0
100111 administrative procedure [No description is listed]

5
100112 administrative sanction

Generally, any formal official imposition of penalty or fine; destruction, taking, seizure, or withholding of property; assessment of damages, reimbursement, restitution, compensation, costs, charges or fees; requirement, revocation or suspension of license; and taking other compulsory or restrictive action by organization, agency or its representative.


0
100120 adsorption

The physical or chemical bonding of molecules of gas, liquid or a dissolved substance to the external surface of a solid or the internal surface, if the material is porous, in a very thin layer. (Source: ALL)


0
100121 adult

A person who is fully grown, developed or of a specified age. (Source: RHW)


0
100122 adult education

Any instruction or training, informal or formal, which is geared to persons of mature age, regardless of previous education, and typically offered by university extension programs, employers, correspondence courses or community groups. (Source: RHW)


2
100126 advertisement

The action of drawing public attention to goods, services or events, often through paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, television or radio. (Source: C / RHW)


1
100130 advice

An official notice, opinion, counsel or recommendation that is optional or at the receiver's discretion. (Source: BLD)


2
100132 aeration

Exposition to the action of air. (Source: MGH)


0
100135 aerial photograph

An image of the ground surface made on a light-sensitive material and taken at a high altitude from an aircraft, spacecraft or rocket. (Source: MHD)


12
114165 aerial photography

No definition needed.


9
100143 aerobic condition

Life common to the majority of animal and plants species requiring the presence of oxygen. (Source: LAROUSa)


0
100146 aerobic process

A process requiring the presence of oxygen. (Source: MGH)


0
112599 aerobic treatment

The introduction of air into sewage so as to provide aerobic biochemical stabilization during a detention period. (Source: KOREN)


0
100148 aerobiology

The study of the atmospheric dispersal of airborne fungus spores, pollen grains, and microorganisms; and, more broadly, of airborne propagules of algae and protozoans, minute insects such as aphids, and pollution gases and particles which exert specific biologic effects. (Source: MGH)


0
100151 aerodynamic noise

Acoustic noise caused by turbulent airflow over the surface of a body. (Source: MGH)


0
100157 aerosol

A gaseous suspension of ultramicroscopic particles of a liquid or a solid. (Source: MGH)


12
100163 aesthetics

Considerations, values, and judgements pertaining to the quality of the human perceptual experience (including sight, sound, smell, touch, taste, and movement) evoked by phenomena or components of the environment. (Source: UNUN)


0
100167 afforestation

1) Establishment of a new forest by seeding or planting of nonforested land. 2) The planting of trees on land which was previously used for other uses than forestry. 3) The planting of trees in an area, or the management of an area to allow trees to regenerate or colonize naturally, in order to produce a forest. (Source: MGH / WRIGHT / ALL)


2
100170 Africa

The second largest of the continents, on the Mediterranean in the north, the Atlantic in the west, and the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, and Indian Ocean in the east. The Sahara desert divides the continent unequally into North Africa and Africa south of Sahara. The largest lake is Lake Victoria and the chief rivers are the Nile, Niger, Congo, and Zambezi. The hottest continent, Africa has vast mineral resources, many of which are still undeveloped. (Source: CED / AMHER)


256
100171 afterburning

An afterburner is a gadget fitted to the exhaust flues of furnaces and also to the exhaust systems of motor vehicles. They remove polluting gases and particles, which are the result of incompletely combusted fuel, by incineration and break down other chemical molecules associated with combustion into inert chemicals. (Source: WRIGHT)


2
100173 age

The period of time that a person, animal or plant has lived or is expected to live. (Source: CED)


29
112511 aggregate extraction

Extraction of crushed rock or gravel screened to sizes for use in road surfaces, concretes, or bituminous mixes. (Source: KOREN)


1
100021 agreement (administrative)

A coming together of minds; a coming together in opinion or determination; the coming together in accord of two minds on a given proposition. In law, a concord of understanding and intention between two or more parties with respect to the effect upon their relative rights and duties, of certain past or future facts or performances. The consent of two or more persons concerning respecting the transmission of some property, right, or benefits, with the view of contracting an obligation, a mutual obligation. The union of two or more minds in a thing done or to be done; a mutual assent to do a thing. (Source: WESTS)


0
100183 agreement (contract)

An agreement, convention, or promise of two or more parties, by deed in writing, signed, and delivered, by which either of the parties pledges himself to the other that something is either done, or shall be done, or shall not be done, or stipulates for the truth of certain facts. (Source: WESTS)


0
100182 agreement (legal)

The coming together in accord of two minds on a given proposition. In law, a concord of understanding and intention between two or more parties with respect to the effect upon their relative rights and duties, of certain past or future facts or performances. The consent of two or more persons concerning respecting the transmission of some property, right, or benefits, with the view of contracting an obligation, a mutual obligation. (Source: WESTS)


1
113168 agri-foodstuff

Industry dealing with the production, processing, and supply of agricultural food products. (Source: PHCa)


0
100185 agricultural biotechnology [No description is listed]

1
100186 agricultural building

The buildings and adjacent service areas of a farm. (Source: WEBSTE)


0
111157 agricultural disaster

Violent, sudden and destructive change in the environment either affecting or caused by land cultivation or the raising of crops or livestock. (Source: ISEP / APD)


0
100191 agricultural ecology [No description is listed]

17
100193 agricultural economics

An applied social science that deals with the production, distribution, and consumption of agricultural or farming goods and services. (Source: AGP)


18
100194 agricultural effluent

Any solid, liquid or gas that enters the environment as a by-product of agricultural activities.


0
100195 agricultural engineering

A discipline concerned with developing and improving the means for providing food and fiber for mankind's needs. (Source: MGH)


0
100197 agricultural equipment

Machines utilized for tillage, planting, cultivation, and harvesting of crops. (Source: MGH)


1
100199 agricultural exploitation

No definition needed.


2
113193 agricultural holding

As defined by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, an agricultural holding is simply a basic unit for agricultural production. (Source: GOOD)


2
111165 agricultural hydraulics

Science and technology involved in the management of water resources, in the control of erosion and in the removal of unwanted water. (Source: ECHO2)


1
100202 agricultural land

Land used primarily for the production of plant or animal crops, including arable agriculture, dairying, pasturage, apiaries, horticulture, floriculture, viticulture, animal husbandry and the necessary lands and structures needed for packing, processing, treating, or storing the produce. (Source: DUNSTE)


19
100204 agricultural landscape

No definition needed.


0
100206 agricultural legislation

Agricultural law is a blend of traditional fields of law including the law of contracts, bailments, torts, criminal, environmental, property, nuisance, wills and estates, and tax law. As such, it is a gathering of statutory and common law. (Source: FREEAD)


6
100207 agricultural machinery

Machines utilized for tillage, planting, cultivation and harvesting of crops. Despite its benefits in increasing yields, mechanisation has clearly had some adverse environmental effects: deep ploughing exposes more soil to wind and water erosion; crop residues can be removed as opposed to ploughing back into the soil; removal of residues can lead to a serious loss of organic content in the soil, which may increase the risk of soil erosion. (Source: MGH / DOBRIS)


0
100208 agricultural management

The administration or handling of soil, crops and livestock. (Source: OED)


29
100210 agricultural method

Practices and techniques employed in agriculture to improve yields and productivity. Over the last few decades they have undergone big changes: tilling, sowing and harvesting have become increasingly mechanised, and the methods of applying fertilisers and pesticides have become more sophisticated. Many changes within the agricultural system can be summed up by intensification. The result and aim of intensification has been to achieve increases in production yields and labour productivity in agriculture. (Source: DOBRIS)


7
100212 agricultural pest

Insects and mites that damage crops, weeds that compete with field crops for nutrients and water, plants that choke irrigation channels or drainage systems, rodents that eat young plants and grain, and birds that eat seedlings or stored foodstuffs. (Source: WRIGHT)


1
100213 agricultural planning

The development of plans and measures to achieve greater and more efficient output from agriculture; a sound agricultural policy should be able to reconcile three basic needs: the production of food and agricultural products, the protection of the environment and the maintenance of the socio-economic structure of rural areas. (Source: DOBRISa)


22
100215 agricultural policy

A course of action adopted by government or some other organization that determines how to deal with matters involving the cultivation of land; raising crops; feeding, breeding and raising livestock or poultry; and other farming issues. (Source: RHW)


5
100216 agricultural pollution

The liquid or solid wastes from farming, including: runoff from pesticides, fertilizers, and feedlots; erosion and dust from plowing; animal manure and carcasses, crop residues, and debris. (Source: LANDY)


0
100220 agricultural product

The output of the cultivation of the soil. (Source: RRDA)


9
100219 agricultural production [No description is listed]

50
113192 agricultural real estate

Property of agricultural land and anything permanently affixed to the land, such as buildings, fences, etc. (Source: WESTS)


3
100224 agricultural storage

Any deposit or holdings of farm products, fertilizers, grains, feed and other related supplies in facilities or containers, often to prevent contamination or for times when production cannot meet demand. (Source: AGP)


0
113136 agricultural structure

The buildings, machinery, facilities, related to agricultural production. (Source: RRDA)


4
111158 agricultural undervaluation

The underrating or diminishing in value of agricultural or farming goods and services. (Source: RHW)


0
100229 agricultural waste

Unusable materials, liquid or solid, that result from agricultural practices, such as fertilizers, pesticides, crop residue (such as orchard prunings) and cattle manure. (Source: HMD / MHD)


0
2 Agriculture [No description is listed]

0
100232 agriculture

The production of plants and animals useful to man, involving soil cultivation and the breeding and management of crops and livestock. (Source: MGH)


95
100233 agriculture and cattle industry

Large scale growing of crops and livestock grazing for profit. (Source: RRDA)


46
100235 agriculture framework plan

A formulated or systematic method for the management of soil, crops and livestock. (Source: OED)


5
107354 agritourism

Holidays organized in a farm: meals are prepared with natural products and guests are entertained with handicraft, sporting and agricultural activities. (Source: DIFID)


1
100237 agrochemical

Any substance or mixture of substances used or intended to be used for preventing, destroying, repelling, attracting, inhibiting, or controlling any insects, rodents, birds, nematodes, bacteria, fungi, weeds or other forms of plant, animal or microbial life regarded as pests. (Source: GILP96)


1
100239 agroforestry

The interplanting of farm crops and trees, especially leguminous species. In semiarid regions and on denuded hillsides, agroforestry helps control erosion and restores soil fertility, as well as supplying valuable food and commodities at the same time. (Source: ALL)


8
100240 agroindustry

Industry dealing with the supply, processing and distribution of farm products. (Source: PHC)


0
100241 agrometeorology

The study of the interaction between meteorological and hydrological factors, on the one hand, and agriculture in the widest sense, including horticulture, animal husbandry and forestry, on the other. (Source: EURMET)


0
111234 agronomic value

The monetary or material worth at which buyers and sellers agree to do business for agricultural goods and services. (Source: AGP / RHW)


16
111152 agronomy

The principles and procedures of soil management and of field crop and special-purpose plant improvement, management, and production. (Source: MGH)


10
111153 agrosystem

Ecosystem dominated by the continuous agricultural intervention of man. (Source: ECHO1)


4
113302 aid policy

A course of action adopted and pursued by government or some other organization that promotes or determines the allocation of assistance, support or relief, often from one country to another. (Source: ODE)


0
100243 AIDS

The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is caused by HIV-virus manifested by opportunistic infections and/or malignancies, and the mortality rate is very high. The syndrome results from a breakdown of the body's disease-fighting mechanism that leaves it defenceless against infections, such as pulmonary tuberculosis, Pneumocystis pneumonia, certain blood infections, candidiasis, invasive cervical cancer, Kaposi's sarcoma or any of over 20 other indicator diseases. No effective treatment is available. A striking feature of AIDS is the wide spectrum and frequency of infections with life-threatening pathogens seldom seen in normal hosts. The illness may begin with insidious signs and symptoms, and the process may be more diffuse than when the same conditions are seen in other immune-compromised patients. Four patterns of disease occur in AIDS patients. The pulmonary pattern, the central nervous system pattern, the gastrointestinal pattern, and the pattern of fever of unknown origin. Most patients who recover from a given opportunistic infection subsequently either have a relapse or develop a new type of infection. Many patients continue to have a wasting syndrome and experience such infections as oral thrush. Feelings of depression and isolation are common among AIDS patients and can be intensified if health care workers display fear of the syndrome. (Source: WPR) aquired immune deficiency syndrome


25
3 Air [No description is listed]

0
100245 air

A predominantly mechanical mixture of a variety of individual gases forming the earth's enveloping atmosphere. (Source: MGH)


7
100250 air conditioning

A system or process for controlling the temperature and sometimes the humidity and purity of the air in a house, etc. (Source: CED)


0
100262 air movement

Air movements within the Earth's atmospheric circulation; also called planetary winds. Two main components are recognized: first, the latitudinal meridional component due to the Coriolis force (a deflecting motion or force discussed by G.G. de Coriolis in 1835. The rotation of the Earth causes a body moving across its surface to be deflected to the right in the N hemisphere and to the left in the S hemisphere); and secondly, the longitudinal component and the vertical movement, resulting largely from varying pressure distributions due to differential heating and cooling of the Earth's surface. (Source: WHIT)


0
100263 air pollutant

Any pollutant agent or combination of such agents, including any physical, chemical, biological, radioactive substance or matter which is emitted into or otherwise enters the ambient air and can, in high enough concentrations, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. (Source: LEE / TOE)


1
100265 air pollution

Presence in the atmosphere of large quantities of gases, solids and radiation produced by the burning of natural and artificial fuels, chemical and other industrial processes and nuclear explosions. (Source: GUNN)


11
100270 air quality

The degree to which air is polluted; the type and maximum concentration of man-produced pollutants that should be permitted in the atmosphere. (Source: ALL / WRIGHT)


9
100272 air quality control

The measurement of ambient air-pollution concentrations in order to determine whether there is a problem in a given region. (Source: CONFERa)


3
100274 air quality management

Regulate and plan and work toward the accomplishment of completion of stated goals, objectives and mission pertaining to air quality. (Source: PORT)


6
114973 air quality monitoring

Regular checking and recording of air quality in a given area. The following pollutants must be considered: carbon monoxide, benzene, butadiene, lead, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and particulates. (Source: DOCMMU)


11
100277 air safety

Any measure, technique or design intended to reduce the risk of harm posed by either moving vehicles or projectiles above the earth's surface or pollutants to the earth's atmosphere. (Source: AHB / TOE)


0
100281 air temperature

The temperature of the atmosphere which represents the average kinetic energy of the molecular motion in a small region and is defined in terms of a standard or calibrated thermometer in thermal equilibrium with the air. (Source: MGH)


36
100282 air traffic

Aircraft moving in flight or on airport runways.


1
100285 air traffic law

International rules and conventions relating to air transportation. (Source: DEFRA)


0
100286 air traffic regulation [No description is listed]

1
100289 air transportation

The use of aircraft, predominantly airplanes, to move passengers and cargo. (Source: MGH)


1
100290 air-water interaction

The physical processes at the air-water interface: momentum, heat and mass transfer across the air-water interface, mixing of surface water by wind stress and wave breaking, directional wave spectra and wave forces on offshore structures. The air-water interaction is measured by the turbulence and gas exchanges resulting from the mixing of the water column by wind. (Source: WATER / CEIS)


0
111918 airborne noise

Noise caused by the movement of large volumes of air and the use of high-pressure air. (Source: CORBIT)


0
100253 aircraft

Any structure, machine, or contrivance, especially a vehicle, designed to be supported by the air, either by the dynamic action of the air upon the surfaces of the structure or object or by its own buoyancy. (Source: MGH)


11
100255 aircraft engine emission

The formation and discharge of gaseous and particulate pollutants into the environment, especially the stratosphere, chiefly from airplanes, helicopters and other high-altitude aircrafts. (Source: MHE)


0
100256 aircraft noise

Effective sound output of the various sources of noise associated with aircraft operation, such as propeller and engine exhaust, jet noise, and sonic boom. (Source: MGH)


0
100267 airport

A landing and taking-off area for civil aircraft, usually with surfaced runways and aircraft maintenance and passenger facilities. (Source: CED)


15
100279 airspace planning

The activity of organizing or preparing for transportation through the atmosphere above earth's surface. (Source: RHW)


0
100293 alarm

Signalling an impending danger in order to call attention to some event or condition. (Source: CED / AMHER)


0
100298 alcohol

A group of organic chemical compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The molecules in the series vary in chain length and are composed of a hydrocarbon plus a hydroxyl group. Alcohol includes methanol and ethanol. (Source: EIADOE)


1
100301 alga

Simple, green, aquatic plants without stems, roots or leaves. They are among the microscopic organisms that form the start of the food chain. Algae are found floating in the sea and fresh water, but they also grow on the surface of damp walls, rocks, the bark of trees and on soil. They contain chlorophyll and other pigments that let them grow by photosynthesis. On land, algae can be useful in improving the fertility of soil by nitrogen fixation. (Source: WRIGHT)


9
100303 algal bloom

Excessive and rapid growth of algae and other aquatic plants when they are stimulated to grow too quickly by pollution. It takes place when there are too many nutrients in the water and is aggravated when accompanied by a rise in temperature. Although the algae grow quickly they soon die because they have swallowed up all the water's nutrients. As they decompose they tend to rise to the surface and form a green slime. Algal bloom have increased because higher levels of nitrogen and phosphates from agricultural areas have leached from the fields into water courses. (Source: WRIGHT)


0
100305 algicide

Any substance or chemical applied to kill or control algal growth. (Source: LANDY)


0
100308 alicyclic compound

Any substance composed of two or more unlike atoms held together by chemical bonds characterized by straight-chained, branched or cyclic properties. (Source: RHW)


0
100309 alicyclic hydrocarbon

A class of organic compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen atoms joined to form one or more rings and having the properties of both aliphatic and cyclic substances. (Source: MGH / RRDA)


0
110215 alignment

The selection and detailed layout of public transport routes in the light of construction, operation, service, technology, and economic criteria. (Source: ECHO2)


0
100311 aliphatic compound

Any organic compound of hydrogen and carbon characterized by a straight chain of the carbon atoms. (Source: MGH)


0
100312 aliphatic hydrocarbon

Hydrocarbons having an open chain of carbon atoms, whether normal or forked, saturated or unsaturated. (Source: MGH)


0
100313 alkali land

Any geomorphic area, often a level lake-like plain, with soil containing a high percentage of mineral salts, located especially in arid regions. (Source: MHD / RHW)


0
100319 alkali soil

Soil that contains sufficient exchangeable sodium to interfere with water penetration and crop growth, either with or without appreciable quantities of soluble salts. (Source: LANDY)


0
112366 alkaline battery

A primary cell that uses an alkaline electrolyte, usually potassium hydroxide, and delivers about 1.5 volts at much higher current rates than the common carbon-zinc cell. Also known as alkaline-manganese cell. (Source: MGH)


0
100322 alkane

Paraffins. A homologous series of saturated hydrocarbons having the general formula CnH2n+2. Their systematic names end in -ane. They are chemically inert, stable, and flammable. The first four members of the series (methane, ethane, propane, butane) are gases at ordinary temperatures; the next eleven are liquids, and form the main constituents of paraffin oil; the higher members are solids. Paraffin waxs consists mainly of higher alkanes. (Source: UVAROV)


0
100326 alkyl compound

Compound containing one or more alkyl radicals. (Source: MGH)


0
110915 all-terrain vehicle

A land carriage so constructed that it can be used on any kind of road or rough terrain and can be operated for many purposes, such as carrying goods, transporting the injured, conveying passengers, etc. (Source: ECHO1)


0
100329 allergen

Any antigen, such as pollen, a drug, or food, that induces an allergic state in humans or animals. (Source: MGH)


0
100332 allergy

A condition of abnormal sensitivity in certain individuals to contact with substances such as proteins, pollens, bacteria, and certain foods. This contact may result in exaggerated physiologic responses such as hay fever, asthma, and in severe enough situations, anaphylactic shock. (Source: KOREN)


0
100335 allocation

The assignment or allotment of resources to various uses in accord with a stated goal or policy. (Source: ODE)


2
100336 allocation plan

The formulation and application of such measures as laws, economic plans, urbanism, etc., to ensure a balance between the population's needs and the country's resources. (Source: ECHO2)


1
113560 allowance [No description is listed]

0
100340 alloy

Any of a large number of substances having metallic properties and consisting of two or more elements; with few exceptions, the components are usually metallic elements. (Source: MGH)


0
110170 alluvial plain

A level or gently sloping tract or a slightly undulating land surface produced by extensive deposition of alluvium, usually adjacent to a river that periodically overflows its banks; it may be situated on a flood plain, a delta, or an alluvial fan. (Source: BJGEO)


15
100341 alluvion

An overflowing; an inundation or flood, especially when the water is charged with much suspended material. (Source: BJGEO)


0
100342 alpha radiation

A stream of alpha particles which are ejected from many radioactive substances having a penetrating power of a few cm in air but can be stopped by a thin piece of paper. (Source: MGH / PITT)


0
100349 alternative material

Materials employed in the place of others which are more dangerous for the environment, such as phosphate substitutes in detergents. (Source: RRDA)


0
100351 alternative technology

Technology that, as an alternative to resource-intensive and wasteful industry, aims to utilize resources sparingly, with minimum damage to the environment, at affordable cost and with a possible degree of control over the processes. (Source: GUNN)


2
110140 altitude

1) In general, a term used to describe a topographic eminence. 2) A specific altitude or height above a given level. 3) In surveying, the term refers to the angle between the horizontal and a point at a higher level. (Source: WHIT)


10
100352 alumina

A natural or synthetic oxide of aluminum widely distributed in nature, often found as a constituent part of clays, feldspars, micas and other minerals, and as a major component of bauxite. (Source: RHW / INP)


0
100353 aluminium

A light white metal, ductile and malleable, and a good conductor of electricity. It occurs widely in nature in clays and is the third most abundant element in the Earth's crust. It is extracted mainly from bauxite by electrolysis of a molten mixture of purified bauxite and cryolite. The metal and its alloys are used for aircraft, cooking utensils, electrical apparatus, and for many other purposes where its light weight is an advantage. Aluminium became implicated as an environmental health hazard in the 1980s on two counts. Biomedical scientists looking for possible causes of Alzheimer's disease, the premature senility indicated by loss of memory and confusion, found a circumstantial link with aluminium. The theory is a controversial one. (Source: UVAROV / WRIGHT)


0
100354 aluminium container

A can or box made of aluminium in which material is held or carried. (Source: AMHERa)


0
100355 aluminium content

Amount of aluminium contained in a solution. (Source: MGH)


0
100356 aluminium industry

A sector of the economy in which an aggregate of commercial enterprises is engaged in the mining and processing of aluminum. (Source: ENC)


0
100360 alveolus

A tiny, thin-walled, capillary-rich sac in the lungs where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place. Also called air sac. (Source: AMHER)


0
100363 amalgam

A solution of a metal in mercury. (Source: ALL)


0
100367 Americas

The landmasses and islands of North America, South America, Mexico, and Central America included in the Western Hemisphere. (Source: AMHER)


2
100370 Ames test

A bioassay developed by Bruce N. Ames in 1974, performed on bacteria to assess the capability of environmental chemicals to cause mutations. (Source: BIOTGL / KORENa)


0
100372 amine

One of a class of organic compounds which can be considered to be derived from ammonia by replacement of one or more hydrogens by organic radicals. (Source: MGH)


0
100373 amino acid

Organic compounds containing a carboxyl group (-COOH) and an amino group (-NH2). About 30 amino acids are known. They are fundamental constituents of living matter because protein molecules are made up of many amino acid molecules combined together. Amino acids are synthesized by green plants and some bacteria, but some (arginine, histidine, lysine. threonine, methionine, isoleucine, leucine, valine, phenylalanine, tryptophane) cannot be synthesized by animals and therefore are essential constituents of their diet. Proteins from specific plants may lack certain amino acids, so a vegetarian diet must include a wide range of plant products. (Source: ALL)


5
100375 ammonia

A colorless gaseous alkaline compound that is very soluble in water, has a characteristic pungent odour, is lighter than air, and is formed as a result of the decomposition of most nitrogenous organic material. (Source: MGH)


2
100378 ammonification

Addition of ammonia or ammonia compounds, especially to the soil. (Source: MGH)


0
100379 ammonium

The radical NH4+. (Source: MGH)


4
100387 amphibian

A class of vertebrate animals characterized by a moist, glandular skin, gills at some stage of development, and no amnion during the embryonic stage. (Source: MGH)


89
100388 amusement park

An open-air entertainment area consisting of stalls, side shows etc. (Source: CED)


0
100391 anaerobic condition

A mode of life carried on in the absence of molecular oxygen. (Source: MGH)


0
100394 anaerobic process

A process from which air or oxygen not in chemical combination is excluded. (Source: MGH)


0
112600 anaerobic treatment

Breakdown of organic material without the presence of oxygen, a treatment which permanently removes the unpleasant odour of many organic wastes so that they can be used on agricultural land. (Source: PHC)


0
100397 analysis

Examination or determination. (Source: RRDA)


36
100398 analysis programme

No definition needed.


5
100399 analytical chemistry

The branch of chemistry dealing with techniques which yield any type of information about chemical systems. (Source: MGH)


2
100401 analytical equipment

Equipment employed in analytical techniques. (Source: RRDA)


0
100402 analytical method

No definition needed.


7
100406 anatomy

The science concerned with the physical structure of animals and plants. (Source: CED)


26
100411 angiosperm

The class of seed plants that includes all the flowering plants, characterized by the possession of flowers. The ovules, which become seeds after fertilization, are enclosed in ovaries. The xylem contains true vessels. The angiospermae are divided into two subclasses: Monocotyledoneae and Dycotiledoneae. (Source: ALL)


2
100412 angling

The art or sport of catching fish with a rod and line and a baited hook or other lure, such as a fly. (Source: CED)


11
100450 animal

Any living organism characterized by voluntary movement, the possession of cells with noncellulose cell walls and specialized sense organs enabling rapid response to stimuli, and the ingestion of complex organic substances such as plants and other animals. (Source: CED)


234
100415 animal behaviour

Behaviour of animals in their normal environment, including all the processes, both internal and external, by which they respond to changes in their environment. (Source: ALL2)


609
111868 animal biology

The scientific study of the natural processes of animals. (Source: CAMBa)


95
110651 animal conservatory

Areas for the conservation of rare or endangered animal species. (Source: RAMADE)


1
110510 animal corridor

Line corridors (roads, paths, and hedgerows) which lack interior habitat but may serve as movement groups for organisms. Corridors may also provide an efficient migratory pathway for animals. The presence or absence of breaks in a corridor may be a very important factor in determining the effectiveness of its conduit and barrier functions. (Source: PARCOR)


39
110511 animal damage

Harm caused to the environment by animals as, for instance, in the case of overgrazing, trampling, etc. Overgrazing damage is reduced by properly located watering facilities to decrease daily travel by livestock. Rotation of grazing areas allows time for recovery of grass. Some land can be easily restored if grazing is allowed only during one season. Animals may cause damage to crops when agriculture land borders on virgin territory or game reserves. In addition wild animals may bring disease in valuable domestic herds. Cattle overstocking has caused serious degradation of habitat, and cattle raising is thus, to some extent, counterproductive. (Source: WPR)


11
100417 animal disease [No description is listed]

98
110512 animal displacement

The habit of many animal species of moving inside their habitats or of travelling, during migrations, to different biotopes, often considerable distances apart; in aquatic environments displacements can occur horizontally or vertically while in terrestrial environments animal populations that breed in the alpine or subalpine zones in summer, move to lower levels in winter; animal displacements usually follow circadian rhythms and are related to the necessity of finding breeding, resting and feeding areas. (Source: RAMADE)


2
100419 animal dung as fuel

Excrement from animals that may be dried and burned to generate energy or converted to liquid or gaseous fuels, such as methane, through chemical processes. (Source: GET)


0
100420 animal ecology

A study of the relationships of animals to their environment. (Source: MGH)


108
113557 animal excrement

Waste matter discharged from the body of an animal. (Source: CED)


17
100421 animal experiment

Investigation carried out in animals for research purposes. (Source: LEEa)


4
100423 animal foodstuff

Any crops or other food substances for animal consumption. (Source: MGHa)


22
100448 animal for slaughter

Animals bred and killed for the production of food. (Source: RRDA)


2
100425 animal genetics

The scientific study of the hereditary material of animals for theoretical and practical applications such as increased population, conservation and disease research. (Source: EEN)


51
110523 animal habitat

The locality in which an animal naturally grows or lives. It can be either the geographical area over which it extends, or the particular station in which an animal is found. (Source: WRIGHT)


154
113321 animal health [No description is listed]

8
110666 animal heritage

The sum of the earth's or a particular region's non-human, non-vegetable, multicellular organisms viewed as the inheritance of the present generation, especially animal species deemed worthy of preservation and protection from extinction. (Source: OED)


1
100428 animal housing

Any kind of shelter, refuge affording protection to animals. (Source: CEDa)


0
18 Animal husbandry [No description is listed]

0
100429 animal husbandry

A branch of agriculture concerned with the breeding and feeding of domestic animals. (Source: MGH)


11
110003 animal life

No definition needed.


1
100432 animal manure

Animal excreta collected from stables and barnyards with or without litter; used to enrich the soil. (Source: MGH)


3
105237 animal migration

Movements that particular animals carry out regularly often between breeding places and winter feeding grounds. (Source: ALL)


54
100434 animal noise

Noise caused by animals such as dogs kept in kennels or in private homes as pets. (Source: RRDA)


0
100435 animal nutrition

Ingestion, digestion and/or assimilation of food by animals. (Source: LBC)


39
100437 animal physiology

Study of the normal processes and metabolic functions of animal organisms. (Source: LBC)


44
110539 animal population

A group of animals inhabiting a given area. (Source: CED)


230
100442 animal product

No definition needed.


27
100441 animal production

No definition needed.


19
100443 animal protection

Precautionary actions or procedures taken to prevent or reduce the harm to sentient, non-human species, posed, in most cases, by humans. (Source: ONE / RHW)


43
114652 animal remain

Any substances or components left over from animal life, including body parts and, later, decomposed materials. (Source: RHW)


1
110548 animal reproduction

Any of various processes, either sexual or asexual, by which an animal produces one or more individuals similar to itself. (Source: CED)


91
100445 animal resource

No definition needed.


2
111477 animal rights

Just claims, legal guarantees or moral principles accorded to sentient, non-human species, including freedom from abuse, consumption, experimentation, use as clothing or performing for human entertainment. (Source: ONE / RHW)


3
100449 animal shelter

A protection providing housing for animals in bad weather. (Source: RRDA)


2
110073 animal species

Species belonging to the animal kingdom. (Source: RRDA)


697
110671 animal species reintroduction

Attempts made to prevent the extinction of threatened species and populations by reintroducing them in their natural habitat. The reintroduction of species in a region requires a preliminary study to establish the reasons of their disappearance and the modifications that might have occurred in the biotopes. (Source: RBGKEWa / RAMADE)


44
100451 animal textile fibre

A filament or threadlike strand derived from animals that manufacturers use to produce clothes or other goods that require weaving, knitting or felting, which include silk, wool, mohair and other forms of animal hair. (Source: INP / RHW)


0
100452 animal trade

The process or act of exchanging, buying or selling animals, especially livestock. (Source: RHW)


57
100453 animal waste

Discarded material from industries directly associated with the raising of animals, such as those wastes produced by livestock farming (manure, milk, etc.), meat production and animal testing (animal bodies, animal parts, feathers, etc.) and fur breeding (fur, blood, etc.). (Source: AWM)


2
100454 anion

An ion that is negatively charged. (Source: MGH)


0
100456 annelid

Any worms of the phylum Anellida, in which the body is divided into segments both internally and externally. The group includes the earthworms, lugworm, ragworm, and leeches. (Source: CED)


0
100458 antagonism

The situation in which two chemicals upon interaction interfere in such a way that the action of one partially or completely inhibits the effects of the other. (Source: KOREN)


0
100460 antagonistic effect of toxic substances [No description is listed]

0
100463 Antarctic ecosystem [No description is listed]

0
100464 Antarctic Ocean

The waters, including ice shelves, that surround the continent of Antarctica, which comprise the southernmost parts of the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian oceans, and also the Ross, Amundsen, Bellingshausen and Weddell seas. (Source: RHW / CIA)


4
100465 Antarctic region

An area within the Antarctic Circle that includes the fifth largest continent and its surrounding waters, consisting mostly of thick ice shelves. (Source: INP / CIA)


0
100461 Antarctica

A continent lying chiefly within the Antarctic Circle and asymmetrically centered on the South Pole: it consists of an ice-covered plateau (some 95 percent of Antarctica is covered by an icecap averaging 1,6 km in thickness), 1800-3000 m above sea level, and mountains ranges rising to 4500 m with some volcanic peaks; average temperatures all below freezing and human settlement is confined to research station. (Source: CED / AMHER)


0
100468 anthropic activity

Action resulting from or influenced by human activity or intervention. (Source: GRAHAW)


0
100470 anthropogenic factor [No description is listed]

3
100471 anthropologic reserve

Area of protection of the life style of societies where traditional human activities are still maintained and the exploitation of natural resources is still carried out without compromising the future availability. (Source: RRDA)


0
100473 antibiotic

A chemical substance, produced by microorganisms and synthetically, that has the capacity to inhibit the growth of, and even to destroy, bacteria and other microorganisms. (Source: MGH)


1
100474 antibody

A complex protein that is produced in response to the introduction of a specific antigen into an animal. Antibodies belong to a class of proteins called immunoglobins, which are formed by plasma cells in the blood as a defence mechanism against invasion by parasites, notably bacteria and viruses, either by killing them or rendering them harmless. (Source: ALL2)


0
100475 anticipation of danger

The act of foreseeing, expecting and taking measures against possible future exposure to harm, death or a thing that causes these. (Source: ISEP)


0
100478 antifouling agent

Agent that inhibits the growth of barnacles and other marine organisms on a ship's bottom (an antifouling paint or other coating). Organo-tin compounds have been the most often used agents in this application since they are effective against both soft and hard fouling organisms. However, in spite of their performance, they have a negative impact on the marine environment and their long half life in the environment, has prompted marine paint manufacturers to look for a nonpersistent alternative. (Source: CED / OLIN)


0
100483 antipollution incentive

Financial reward or penalty used to incite action towards greater responsibility in reducing the presence of pollution or substances in the environment deemed harmful to human health or natural resources. (Source: ODE / TOE)


0
111073 antipollution premium

A prize or bonus given as an inducement or reward for efforts to reduce the presence of pollution or substances in the environment deemed harmful to human health or natural resources. (Source: ISEP / OED / TOE)


0
105858 antiquated plant

Old installation that do not respond to new rules for the prevention of environmental pollution and whose redevelopment requires investments for adopting technologies related to the protection of waterways, waste management, noise reduction and emission control. (Source: RRDA)


0
112746 antiseismic regulation

Rules for minimizing or containing the risks deriving from earthquakes. (Source: MANCOS)


0
100486 AOX value

Organic halogens subject to absorption. This is a measure of the amount of chlorine (and other halogens) combined with organic compounds. (Source: PORT) adsorbable organic halogens value


0
100488 apartment block

An apartment building in which each apartment is individually wholly owned and the common areas are jointly owned. (Source: CED)


2
100490 apiculture

Large-scale commercial beekeeping. (Source: MGH)


0
100492 appeal

Resort to a superior court to review the decision of an inferior court or administrative agency. (Source: BLACK)


0
100493 appeal procedure

Procedure through which it is possible to resort to a superior court to review the decision of an inferior court. (Source: BLACKa)


0
100494 applied ecology

The application of ecological principles to the solution of human problems. (Source: PARCOR)


2
100495 applied nutrition

Putting to use general principles of the science of human nourishment to address or solve specific problems. (Source: MED)


4
111146 applied research

Research directed toward using knowledge gained by basic research to make things or to create situations that will serve a practical or utilitarian purpose. (Source: MGH)


17
100496 applied science

Science whose results are employed in technical applications. (Source: ZINZAN)


2
112900 appraisal

An expert or official valuation. (Source: WEBSTE)


2
111259 approach

The way or means of entry or access. (Source: CEDa)


2
100498 appropriate technology

1) A flexible and participatory approach to developing economically viable, regionally applicable and sustainable technology. 2) Technology designed to be used in developing countries. Typical requirements are that it should: be easy to use by the unskilled; have no difficult-to-get parts; be easily repaired on the spot. Typical example: a simple windmill to pump water rather than a diesel-driven pump. The terms `alternative', `intermediate' and `appropriate' are often used interchangeably. (Source: IISD / VCN) techology transfer


0
113697 approval [No description is listed]

0
100500 approval of installations

Authorization or permission for setting up or making adjustments to a building or to a mechanical or electrical system or apparatus. (Source: OED)


0
100501 aquaculture

1) The cultivation and harvest of freshwater or marine animals and plants, in ponds, tanks, cages or on protected beds. This is usually done in inland waters, estuaries or coastal waters. It is estimated that commercial fish farming accounts for more than 10% of the world's fish needs. Fish farming usually concentrates on molluscs, including oysters, mussels and clams, because they are usually immobile and fetch high prices. Shrimps and salmon are also farmed, but the stock have to be caught in the wild first, so that they can be brought up to commercial standards in pens. Aquaculture in not new. In Asia freshwater fish have been farmed for some 4.000 years, usually on small farms. 2) The use of artificial means to increase the production of aquatic organisms in fresh or salt water. (Source: WRIGHT / LANDY)


31
100503 aquatic animal

Animal having a water habitat. (Source: RRDA)


18
100504 aquatic ecology

The study of the relationships among aquatic living organisms and between those organisms and their environment. (Source: ALLa)


12
100505 aquatic ecosystem

Any watery environment, from small to large, from pond to ocean, in which plants and animals interact with the chemical and physical features of the environment. (Source: GILP96)


28
110194 aquatic environment

Waters, including wetlands, that serve as habitat for interrelated and interacting communities and populations of plants and animals. (Source: LEE)


21
100508 aquatic mammal [No description is listed]

40
100510 aquatic micro-organism

Microorganisms having a water habitat. (Source: MGH)


6
100511 aquatic organism

Organisms which live in water. (Source: PHC)


12
100514 aquatic plant

Plants adapted for a partially or completely submerged life. (Source: LBC)


18
100516 aquatic recreational amenity

No definition needed.


0
100517 aqueduct

A channel for supplying water; often underground, but treated architecturally on high arches when crossing valleys or low ground. (Source: HARRIS)


0
100518 aquifer

Layers of rock, sand or gravel that can absorb water and allow it to flow. An aquifer acts as a groundwater reservoir when the underlying rock is impermeable. This may be tapped by wells for domestic, agricultural or industrial use. A serious environmental problem arises when the aquifer is contaminated by the seepage of sewage or toxins from waste dumps. If the groundwater in coastal areas is over-used salt water can seep into the aquifer. (Source: WRIGHT)


50
100521 arable farming

Growing crops as opposed to dairy farming, cattle farming, etc. (Source: PHC)


5
110640 arboretum

Collection of trees from different parts of the world, grown for scientific study. (Source: PHC)


0
100527 arboriculture

The planting and care of woody plants, especially trees. (Source: AMHER)


0
100529 archaeological site

Any location containing significant relics and artifacts of past culture. (Source: LANDY)


11
100530 archaeology

The scientific study of the material remains of the cultures of historical or prehistorical peoples. (Source: MGH)


88
100531 archipelago

A chain of many islands including the waters that surround them. (Source: DOE)


1
100538 architecture

The art and science of designing and building structures, or large groups of structures, in keeping with aesthetic and functional criteria. (Source: HARRIS)


0
100541 Arctic ecosystem [No description is listed]

1
100542 Arctic Ocean

The smallest and most poorly studied of the oceans on earth. It covers an area of 14 million square km that is divided by three submarine ridges, i.e. the Alpha Ridge, the Lomonosov Ridge, and an extension of the mid-Atlantic ridge. It is also nearly landlocked, covered year-round by pack ice, and the third of its area is continental shelf. (Source: OCEAN)


1
100543 Arctic region

The northernmost area of the earth, centered on the North Pole, that includes the Arctic Ocean, the northern reaches of Canada, Alaska, Russia, Norway and most of Greenland, Iceland and Svalbard. (Source: INP)


0
100547 area of potential pollution

Area which is supposedly causing dangers to human health and environment. (Source: ECHO2)


0
114975 area under stress

Areas that are flooded by rising number of tourists or other kinds of pressure and suffer from insufficient or inappropriate planning and management. Damage frequently arises from a lack of understanding or interest of the value of such sites. (Source: WPR)


2
100552 arid land

Lands characterized by low annual rainfall of less than 250 mm, by evaporation exceeding precipitation and a sparse vegetation. (Source: LBC)


490
100551 arid land ecosystem

The interacting system of a biological community and its non-living environmental surroundings in a climatic region where the annual precipitation averages less than 10 inches per year. (Source: TOE / DOE)


490
100556 armament

The weapons, ammunition and equipment, or the total force held by a military unit or state. (Source: RHW)


0
100557 armament conversion

Change in character, form or function of the arms and equipment with which a military unit is supplied.


0
100558 armed forces

The military units of a state, typically divided by their differing contexts of operations, such as the army, navy, air force and marines. (Source: RHW)


0
100560 aromatic compound

Compounds characterized by the presence of at least one benzene ring. (Source: MGH)


0
100562 aromatic hydrocarbon

Hydrocarbons having an unsaturated ring containing alternating double and single bonds, especially containing a benzene ring. (Source: CED)


0
100564 aromatic substance

Substance having a distinctive, usually fragrant smell. (Source: CED)


0
100566 arrangement for a deposit on packaging

Agreement to provide refunds or payments in exchange for used bottles or packaging materials. (Source: RHW)


0
100567 arsenic

A toxic metalloid element, existing in several allotropic forms, that occurs principally in realgar and orpiment and as the free element. It is used in transistors, lead-based alloys, and high temperature brasses. (Source: CED)


2
100568 art

The creation of works of beauty or other special significance. (Source: CED)


19
100571 arthropod

The largest phylum in the animal kingdom; adults typically have segmented body, a sclerotized integument, and many-jointed segmental limbs. (Source: MGH)


22
100572 Articulata

Animals characterized by the repetition of similar segments (metameres), exhibited especially by arthropods, annelids, and vertebrates in early embryonic stages and in certain specialized adult structures. (Source: MGH)


0
100579 artificial lake

Lakes created behind manmade barriers. (Source: PARCOR)


2
113320 artificial reproductive technique [No description is listed]

0
100587 artificial satellite

Any man-made object placed in a near-periodic orbit in which it moves mainly under the gravitational influence of one celestial body, such as the earth, sun, another planet, or a planet's moon. (Source: MGH)


0
100591 asbestos

Generic name for a group of fibrous mineral silicates. It includes blue asbestos (crocidolite), white asbestos (chrysotile) and brown asbestos (amosite). After they are mined the asbestos fibres are separated from the rock and are spun into a cloth. When inhaled the fibres penetrate the lungs and the tissues of the bronchial tubes, resulting in asbestosis, a crippling lung disease. Asbestos also causes cancer of the lung and the gastro-intestinal tract, and mesothelioma, a malignant cancer of the inner lining of the chest. However, because it is a poor conductor of electricity and highly resistant to heat it has been widely used over the years in fire-fighting suits, and building and insulating materials. The fibrous form of several silicate minerals, at one time widely used for electrical and thermal insulation; the use of all forms of asbestos is now either banned or strictly controlled in many countries since it causes cancer. (Source: WRIGHT / ALL)


0
100594 asbestos cement

A hardened mixture of asbestos fibers, Portland cement and water used in relatively thin slabs for shingles, wallboard and siding. (Source: WEBSTE)


0
111752 asbestosis

A non-malignant progressive, irreversible, lung disease, characterized by diffuse fibrosis, resulting from the inhalation of asbestos fibers. (Source: CONFER)


0
100595 ASEAN

Association of Southeast Asian Nations. (Source: MIIS)


0
100596 ash

The incombustible matter remaining after a substance has been incinerated. (Source: MGH)


1
100598 Asia

The world's largest continent. It occupies the eastern part of the Eurasian landmass and its adjacent islands and is separated from Europe by the Ural Mountains. Asia borders on the Arctic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean, the Indian Ocean, and the Mediterranean and Red Seas in the west. It includes the largest peninsulas of Asia Minor, India, Arabia, and Indochina and the island groups of Japan, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Ceylon; contains the mountain ranges of the Hindu Kush, Himalayas, Pamirs, Tian Shan, Urals, and Caucasus, the great plateaus of India, Iran and Tibet, vast plains and deserts, and the valleys of many large rivers including the Mekong, Irrawaddy, Indus, Ganges, Tigris and Euphrates. (Source: AMHER / CED)


9
113077 assay

Qualitative or quantitative determination of the components of a material, such as an ore or a drug. (Source: MGH)


0
100605 assimilation

Conversion of nutritive material to living tissue. (Source: KOREN)


0
100607 association

A body of persons associated for the regulation of a common economic activity by means of a special organization. (Source: SHOOX / ZINZAN)


0
100611 astronautics

The science of space flight. (Source: MGH)


0
100612 astronomy

The science concerned with celestial bodies and the observation and interpretation of the radiation received in the vicinity of the earth from the component parts of the universe. (Source: MGH)


11
115033 Atlantic Ocean [No description is listed]

773
100616 atlas

A bound collection of maps or charts, plates, engravings or tables illustrating any subject. (Source: CCL / RHW)


398
100617 atmosphere

The gaseous envelope surrounding the Earth in a several kilometers-thick layer. (Source: UVAROVa)


2
112008 atmospheric aerosol

Particulate matter suspended in the air. The particulate matter may be in the form of dusts, fumes, or mist. Aerosols in the atmosphere are the form in which pollutants such as smoke are dispersed. (Source: LANDY / PHC)


11
100621 atmospheric chemistry

The study of the production, transport, modification, and removal of atmospheric constituents in the troposphere and stratosphere. (Source: MGH)


0
100622 atmospheric circulation

The general movement and circulation of air, which transfers energy between different levels of the atmosphere. The mechanisms of circulation are very complicated. They involve the transfer of energy between the oceans and the atmosphere, the land and the atmosphere, as well as the different levels of the atmosphere. (Source: WRIGHT)


2
100623 atmospheric component

The Earth's atmosphere consists by volume of nitrogen (79,1%), oxygen (20,9%), carbon dioxide (about 0,03%) and traces of the noble gases (argon, krypton, xenon, helium) plus water vapour, traces of ammonia, organic matter, ozone, various salts and suspended solid particles. (Source: ALL)


0
100624 atmospheric composition

The chemical abundance in the earth's atmosphere of its constituents including nitrogen, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide, water vapour, ozone, neon, helium, krypton, methane, hydrogen and nitrous oxide. (Source: MGH)


0
114915 atmospheric correction

The removal from the remotely sensed data of the atmospheric effects caused by the scattering and absorption of sunlight by particles; the removal of these effects improves not only the quality of the observed earth surface imaging but also the accuracy of classification of the ground objects. (Source: YOUNG)


1
100625 atmospheric emission

Suspended pollutants -- solid particles, liquid aerosols, etc. -- or toxic gases released into the atmosphere from a polluting source, or type of source. (Source: ISEP)


3
112026 atmospheric fallout

The sedimentation of dust or fine particles from the atmosphere. (Source: LEE)


0
100626 atmospheric humidity

A measurable quantity of the moisture content found in the earth's atmosphere. (Source: RHW)


11
112082 atmospheric inversion

A temperature inversion in the atmosphere in which the temperature, instead of falling, increases with height above the ground. With the colder and heavier air below, there is no tendency to form upward currents and turbulence is suppressed. Inversions are often formed in the late afternoon when the radiation emitted from the ground exceeds that received from the sinking sun. Inversions are also caused by katabatic winds, that is cold winds flowing down the hillside into a valley, and by anticyclones. In inversion layers, both vertical and horizontal diffusion is inhibited and pollutants become trapped, sometimes for long periods. Low-level discharges of pollutants are more readily trapped by inversions than high level dischargers, hence the case for high stacks. Furthermore, high level discharges into an inversion tend to remain at a high level because of the absence of vertical mixing. (Source: GILP96)


2
100627 atmospheric layering

Any one of a number of strata or layers of the earth's atmosphere; temperature distribution is the most common criterion used for denoting the various shell. Also known as atmospheric shell; atmospheric region. (Source: MGH)


1
100629 atmospheric model

A simulation, pattern or plan designed to demonstrate the structure or workings of the atmosphere surrounding any object, including the Earth. (Source: APD)


1
100631 atmospheric monitoring

A practice of continuous atmospheric sampling by various levels of government or particular industries. (Source: MGH)


1
100632 atmospheric ozone

A triatomic molecule of oxygen; a natural constituent of the atmosphere, with the highest concentrations in the ozone layer or stratosphere; it is found at a level between 15 and 30 km above the Earth, which prevents harmful ultraviolet B radiation, which causes skin cancer and threatens plant life, from reaching the ground. The fragile shield is being damaged by chemicals released on Earth. The main chemicals that are depleting stratospheric ozone are chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), which are used in refrigerators, aerosols and as cleaners in many industries and halons, which are used in fire extinguishers. The damage is caused when these chemicals release highly reactive forms of chlorine and bromine. (Source: GILP96 / WRIGHT)


0
100633 atmospheric particulate

A concentration of fine liquid or solid particles, such as dust, smoke, mist, fumes or smog, found in the atmosphere. (Source: TOE)


0
100634 atmospheric physics

The study of the physical phenomena of the atmosphere. (Source: MGH)


1
100636 atmospheric pollution

The presence in the air of one or more contaminants in such a concentration and of such duration as to cause a nuisance or to be injurious to human life, animal life or vegetation. (Source: LANDY)


2
100637 atmospheric precipitation

The settling out of water from cloud in the form of dew, rain, hail, snow, etc. (Source: ALL)


64
100639 atmospheric process

Atmospheric processes are distinguished in physical and chemical processes and both types may be operating simultaneously in complicated and interdependent ways. The physical processes of transport by atmospheric winds and the formation of clouds and precipitation strongly influence the patterns and rates of acidic deposition, while chemical reactions govern the forms of the compounds deposited. (Source: PARCOR)


0
100640 atmospheric science

The atmospheric sciences study the dynamics, physics and chemistry of atmospheric phenomena and processes, including the interactions of the atmosphere with soil physics, hydrology and oceanic circulation. The research focuses on the following areas: turbulence and convection, atmospheric radiation and remote sensing, aerosol and cloud physics and chemistry, planetary atmospheres, air-sea interactions, climate, and statistical meteorology. (Source: ATS)


1
100641 atmospheric structure

The gaseous area surrounding the planet is divided into several concentric spherical strata (layers, like shells) separated by narrow transition zones. The boundaries are know as pause. More than 99% of the total atmospheric mass is concentrated in the first 40 km from the Earth's surface. Atmospheric layers are characterized by differences in chemical composition that produce variations in temperature. (Source: KSW)


0
111713 atrazine

Herbicide belonging to the triazine group, widely employed and particularly in maize crops. It is highly toxic for phytoplancton and freshwater algae and, being highly soluble in water, it easily contaminates aquifers. (Source: RAMADE)


0
114923 attribute

A distinctive feature of an object. In mapping and GIS applications, the objects are points, lines, or polygons that represent features such as sampling locations, section corners (points); roads and streams (lines); lakes, forest and soil types (polygons). These attributes can be further divided into classes such as tree species Douglas-fir and ponderosa pine) for forest types and paved and gravel for road types. Multiple attributes are generally associated with objects that are located on a single map layer. (Source: FORUMT)


1
100654 attribution

Under certain circumstances, the tax law applies attribution rules to assign to one taxpayer the ownership interest of another taxpayer. (Source: WESTS)


0
114870 audio-visual presentation

An exhibition, performance, demonstration or lecture utilizing communication media directed at both the sense of sight and the sense of hearing. (Source: RHW)


2
113221 audiovisual equipment

Equipment designed to aid in learning and teaching by making use of both hearing and sight. (Source: WEBSTE)


0
100658 audiovisual media

Any means of communication transmitted to both the sense of hearing and the sense of sight, especially technologies directed to large audiences. (Source: RHW)


0
111057 audit

The periodic or continuous verification of the accounts, assets and liabilities of a company or other organization, often to confirm compliance with legal and professional standards. (Source: West's / ODE)


3
100662 authorisation

An official certification of competence or a transfer of the right and power to act, including permission from government to use state funds for a particular program or project. (Source: BLD / RHW)


0
100661 authority body

An organized assemblage of authorized persons or officials empowered to implement and enforce laws, oversee jurisdictions, settle disputes, adjudicate or make some other legal determination. (Source: RHW / BLD)


4
100664 autoecology

That part of ecology which deals with individual species and their reactions to environmental factors. (Source: UNUN)


4
100665 automatic detection

The processing, discovery and identification of data elements by automated means. (Source: RHW)


0
100668 automobile industry

No definition needed.


0
100678 avalanche

A fall or slide of a large mass, as of snow or rock, down a mountainside. (Source: AMHER)


0
100680 avalanche protection

The total of measures and devices implemented to protect people, property or natural resources from avalanche conditions, including avalanche forecasting and warning, avalanche zoning, ski testing and the use of explosives and other equipment to stabilize an avalanche area. (Source: ALL / AVA)


0
100685 aviation law

International rules regulating air transportation. (Source: NDGIUR)


0
111192 aviculture

The raising, keeping, and care of birds. (Source: AMHER)


1
100686 avifauna

All the birds in a particular region. (Source: CED)


1, 461
100693 background level

Term used in a variety of situations, always as the constant or natural amount of a given substance, radiation, noise, etc. (Source: KORENa)


0
111921 background noise

Noise coming from source other than the noise source being monitored. (Source: KOREN)


0
100695 background radiation

Radiation resulting from natural sources, as opposed to man-made sources, and to which people are exposed in everyday, normal life; for example from rocks and soil. (Source: WRIGHT / MGH)


0
100699 bacterial bed

A device that removes some suspended solids from sewage. Air and bacteria decompose additional wastes filtering through the sand so that cleaner water drains from the bed. (Source: LEE)


0
100700 bactericide

An agent that destroys bacteria. (Source: LBC)


0
111639 bacteriological pollution

Contamination of water, soil and air with pathogen bacteria. (Source: RRDA)


0
100702 bacteriology

The science and study of bacteria. (Source: MGH)


0
100698 bacterium

Group of single-cell micro-organisms, the smallest of the living organisms. Some are vital to sustain life, while others are responsible for causing highly dangerous human diseases, such as anthrax, tetanus and tuberculosis. Bacteria are found everywhere, in the soil, water and air. (Source: MGH / WRIGHT)


6
100709 balance (economic)

An equality between the sums total of the two sides of an account, or the excess on either side. (Source: WESTS)


0
105088 balance of matter

A calculation to inventory material inputs versus outputs in a process system. (Source: MGH)


0
100710 balancing of interests

Considering, weighing or counterbalancing the competing political or financial concerns of different parts of society, including industries, consumers, trade unions and other groups or organizations. (Source: OED / ISEP)


0
113552 bank (land)

The sloping side of any hollow in the ground, especially when bordering a river. (Source: CED)


0
112204 bank protection

Engineering work which aims at the protection of banks of a river, or slopes of embankments along it, from erosion by the current of flow, from floods, etc. (Source: ECHO1a)


0
100716 banking

Transactional business between any bank, an institution for safeguarding, exchanging, receiving and lending money, and that bank's clients or customers. (Source: OED / RHW)


0
100719 barium

A soft silvery-white metallic element of the alkaline earth group. It is used in bearing alloys and compounds are used as pigments. (Source: CED)


0
110149 barrier beach

An elongated sand or shingle bank which lies parallel to the coastline and is not submerged by the tide. If it is high enough to permit dune growth it is termed a barrier island. (Source: WHIT)


0
110175 barrier reef

An elongated accumulation of coral lying at low-tide level parallel to the coast but separated from it by a wide and deep lagoon or strait. The coral is thought to have formed initially on a flat surface: then as the sea-level rose in post-glacial times, thereby submerging the irregular wave-cut platform, the coral growth kept pace with the rising ocean level, so creating the great thickness witnessed today in such places as the Great Barrier Reef off the East coast of Queensland, Australia. This stretches for more than 1900 km and varies in width from about 30 km to 150 km. (Source: WHIT)


0
100728 base (chemical)

Any chemical species, ionic or molecular, capable of accepting or receiving a proton (hydrogen ion) from another substance; the other substance acts as an acid in giving of the proton; the other ion is a base. (Source: MGH)


0
100726 baseline monitoring

Monitoring of long-term changes in atmospheric compositions of particular significance to the weather and the climate. (Source: YOUNG)


611
100730 basic food requirement

The minimum nutriments deemed necessary for a person of a particular age, gender, physiological condition and activity level to sustain life, health and growth. (Source: PAJ)


2
100731 basicity

The state of a solution of containing an excess of hydroxyl ions. (Source: RRDA)


0
100733 basidiomycete [No description is listed]

0
104143 bastardisation of fauna

One of the possible consequences of the introduction of animal species in an area where they are not indigenous. Such translocation of species always involves an element of risk if not of serious danger. Newly arrived species may be highly competitive with or otherwise adversely affect native species and communities. (Source: RRDA / WPRa)


0
104144 bastardisation of flora

One of the possible consequences of the introduction of plant species in an area where they are not indigenous. (Source: RRDA)


0
100736 batch process

A process that is not in continuous or mass production; operations are carried out with discrete quantities of material or a limited number of items. (Source: MGH)


0
112151 bathing freshwater

Freshwater in which bathing is explicitly authorised or in which bathing is not prohibited and is traditionally practised by a large number of bathers. Water in such areas must meet specified quality standards relating to chemical, microbiological and physical parameters. (Source: GILP96a)


0
112166 bathing seawater

Sea waters in which bathing is explicitly authorised or in which bathing is not prohibited and is traditionally practised by a large number of bathers. Water in such areas must meet specified quality standards relating to chemical, microbiological and physical parameters. (Source: GILP96a)


0
100740 bathing water

All waters, inland or coastal, except those intended for therapeutic purposes or used in swimming pools, an area either in which bathing is explicitly authorised or in which bathing is not prohibited and is traditionally practised by a large number of bathers. Water in such areas must meet specified quality standards relating to chemical, microbiological and physical parameters. (Source: GILP96)


0
100745 battery

A series of cells, each containing the essentials for producing voltaic electricity, connected together. (Source: CEDa)


0
100746 battery disposal [No description is listed]

0
100749 bay

An open, curving indentation made by the sea or a lake into a coastline. (Source: WHIT)


1
100751 beach

The unconsolidated material that covers a gently sloping zone, typically with a concave profile, extending landward from the low-water line to the place where there is a definite change in material or physiographic from (such as a cliff), or to the line of permanent vegetation (usually the effective limit of the highest storm waves); a shore of body of water, formed and washed by waves or tides, usually covered by sand or gravel, and lacking a bare rocky surface. (Source: BJGEO)


15
112349 beach cleansing

The process of removing dirt, litter or other unsightly materials from shore line property or surrounding areas. (Source: ISEP)


0
100755 beaching

The washing ashore of whales or other cetaceans that have died for natural causes, or because of highly polluted sea water or after being trapped in drift nets. (Source: WPRa)


1
100762 bee

Any of the membranous-winged insects which compose the superfamily Apoidea in the order Hymenoptera characterized by a hairy body and by sucking and chewing mouthparts. (Source: MGH)


11
100760 bee conservation

The care, preservation and husbandry of hymenopterous insects valued for their ability to pollinate crops and other flora or for their production of honey. (Source: TOE / RHW)


1
100761 beef cattle

Cattle bred for the production of meat. (Source: RRDA)


27
100764 beetle

Any insect of the order Coleoptera, having biting mouthparts and forewings modified to form shell-like protective elytra. (Source: CED)


136
100765 behaviour

Any observable action or response of an organism, group or species to environmental factors. (Source: LBC)


139
100766 behaviour of substances

Reactivity of a compound depending on the structure of the molecules. (Source: RRDA)


0
100767 behaviour pattern

A relatively uniform series of overt activities that can be observed with some regularity. (Source: DUNSTE)


25
113318 behavioural science

The study of the behaviour of organisms. (Source: ZINZAN / ALL)


36
100768 beneficial organism

Any pollinating insect, or any pest predator, parasite, pathogen or other biological control agent which functions naturally or as part of an integrated pest management program to control another pest. (Source: LEE)


0
115034 Benguela Current

Benguela Current


659
100772 benthic division

The bottom of a body of water often occupied by benthos. (Source: GILP96)


0
100773 benthic ecosystem

The interacting system of the biological communities located at the bottom of bodies of freshwater and saltwater and their non-living environmental surroundings. (Source: TOE / DOE)


14
100775 benthos

Those organisms attached to, living on, in or near the sea bed, river bed or lake floor. (Source: LBC)


1
100776 benzene

A colorless, liquid, flammable, aromatic hydrocarbon used to manufacture styrene and phenol. Also known as benzol. (Source: MGH)


0
100777 benzopyrene

A five-ring aromatic hydrocarbon found in coal tar, in cigarette smoke, and as a product of incomplete combustion. (Source: MGH)


0
100781 beryllium

A corrosion-resistant, toxic silvery-white metallic element that occurs chiefly in beryl and is used mainly in x-ray windows and in the manufacture of alloys. (Source: CED)


0
100782 beta radiation

Name given to the ionizing radiation which is produced as a stream of high speed electrons emitted by certain types of radioactive substance when they decay. The intensity of radiation energy produced in human tissue by a beta particle is a hundred times less than that produced by an alpha radiation particle, but it travels slightly deeper into tissue. (Source: WRIGHT)


0
100784 beverage

Any one of various liquids for drinking, usually excluding water. (Source: AMHER)


2
100783 beverage industry [No description is listed]

0
114879 bibliographic information

Data pertaining to the history, physical description, comparison, and classification of books and other works. (Source: RHW)


10
114878 bibliographic information system

A coordinated assemblage of people, devices or other resources organized for the exchange of data pertaining to the history, physical description, comparison, and classification of books and other works. (Source: RHW)


0
100786 bibliography

A complete or selective listing of documents by a given subject, author or publisher, often including the description and identification of the editions, dates of issue, titles, authorship, publishers or other written materials. (Source: RHW / ISEP)


21
100788 bicycle

A vehicle with two wheels in tandem, pedals connected to the rear wheel by a chain, handlebars for steering, and a saddlelike seat.


2
110726 big game

Large wild animals that weigh typically more than 30 lb when fully grown, hunted for food, sport or profit. (Source: CORBIT / AMHER)


2, 392
100792 bilateral convention

An international agreement, especially one dealing with a specific matter, involving two or both sides, factions, or the like. (Source: RRDA)


0
100794 bilge oil

Waste oil that accumulates, usually in small quantities, inside the lower spaces of a ship, just inside the shell plating, and usually mixed with larger quantities of water. (Source: ERG)


0
100795 bilge water

Water that builds up in the bottom of a ship's bilge. (Source: MGH)


0
100802 bio-availability

The extent to which a drug or other substance is taken up by a specific tissue or organ after administration. (Source: ZINZAN / CEDa)


0
100798 bioaccumulation

1) The accumulation of pollutants in living organisms by direct adsorption or through food chains. 2) Accumulation by an organism of materials that are not an essential component or nutrient of that organism. Usually it refers to the accumulation of metals, but it can apply to bioaccumulation of persistent synthetic substances such as organochlorine compounds. Many organisms, such as plants, fungi and bacteria, will accumulate metals when grown in solutions containing them. The process can be employed usefully as a purification process to remove toxic heavy metals from waste water and contaminated land. (Source: WRIGHT)


0
100800 bioaccumulative pollutant

Pollutants that become concentrated in living organisms through the consumption of food or water. (Source: KORENa)


0
100807 biochemical method

Method based on the utilisation of a biochemical mechanism, e.g. any chemical reaction or series of reactions, usually enzyme catalysed, which produces a given physiological effect in a living organism. (Source: BIOHW)


0
100947 biochemical oxygen demand

The amount of oxygen used for biochemical oxidation by a unit volume of water at a given temperature and for a given time. BOD is an index of the degree of organic pollution in water. (Source: LBC)


0
100812 biochemical process

Chemical processes occurring in living organisms. (Source: PHCa)


0
100813 biochemical substance

Chemical substances that occur in animals, microorganisms, and plants. (Source: GILP96a)


1
100815 biochemistry

The study of chemical substances occurring in living organisms and the reactions and methods for identifying these substances. (Source: MGH)


9
100816 biocide

A diverse group of poisonous substance including preservatives, insecticides, disinfectants and pesticides used for the control of organisms that are harmful to human or animal health or that cause damage to natural or manufactured products. (Source: GRAHAW)


0
100818 bioclimatology

The study of climate in relation to fauna and flora. (Source: LBC)


2
100819 biocoenosis

A community or natural assemblage of organisms; often used as an alternative to ecosystem but strictly is the fauna/flora association excluding physical aspects of the environment. (Source: LBC)


0
100820 bioconcentration factor

The quotient of the concentration of a chemical in aquatic organisms at a specific time or during a discrete time period of exposure, divided by the concentration in the surrounding water at the same time or during the same period. (Source: KOREN)


0
100821 biodegradability

The extent to which a substance can be decomposed - or rotted - by bacteria and fungi. Implies that residues from degradation are nontoxic. One of the most misleading claims in business, because shoppers often assume a biodegradable product to be harmless. Some harmful compounds take much longer to degrade than others and the product can harm the environment while it is rotting. Biodegradation may also be incomplete, sometimes leaving residues in the environment which are more harmful than the original substance. Accumulation in the environment of nonbiodegradable (or poorly biodegradable) substances, such as some biocides, can cause serious problems. (Source: VCN)


0
100823 biodegradable pollutant

A pollutant which can be converted by biological processes into simple inorganic molecules. (Source: RRDA)


0
100826 biodegradation

Breaking down of a substance by microorganisms. (Source: MGH)


0
100827 biodiversity

1) Genetic diversity: the variation between individuals and between populations within a species; species diversity: the different types of plants, animals and other life forms within a region; community or ecosystem diversity: the variety of habitats found within an area (grassland, marsh, and woodland for instance. 2) An umbrella term to describe collectively the variety and variability of nature. It encompasses three basic levels of organisation in living systems: the genetic, species, and ecosystem levels. Plant and animal species are the most commonly recognized units of biological diversity, thus public concern has been mainly devoted to conserving species diversity. (Source: WRES / GILP96)


571
100830 bioethics

The study of ethical problems arising from biological research and its applications in such fields as organ transplantation, genetic engineering, or artificial insemination. (Source: CED)


0
112576 biofiltration

The distribution of settled sewage on a bed of inert granular material through which it is allowed to percolate. In doing so, the effluent is aerated thus allowing aerobic bacteria and fungi to reduce its biochemical oxygen demand. (Source: PORT)


0
112011 biofuel

A gaseous, liquid, or solid fuel that contains an energy content derived from a biological source. The organic matter that makes up living organisms provides a potential source of trapped energy that is beginning to be exploited to supply the ever-increasing energy demand around the world. An example of a biofuel is rapeseed oil, which can be used in place of diesel fuel in modified engines. The methyl ester of this oil, rapeseed methyl ester (RME), can be used in unmodified diesel engines and is sometimes known as biodiesel. Other biofuels include biogas and gasohol. (Source: DICCHE)


53
100832 biogas

Gas, rich in methane, which is produced by the fermentation of animal dung, human sewage or crop residues in an air-tight container. It is used as a fuel, to heat stoves, lamps, run small machines and to generate electricity. The residues of biogas production are used as a low-grade organic fertilizer. Biogas fuels do not usually cause any pollution to the atmosphere, and because they come from renewable energy resources they have great potential for future use. (Source: WRIGHT)


1
100833 biogeochemical cycle

Movement of chemical elements in a circular pathway, from organisms to physical environment, back to organisms. The process is termed a nutrient cycle if the elements concerned are trace elements, which are essential to life. A biogeochemical cycle occurs when vegetation decomposes and minerals are incorporated naturally in the humus for future plant growth. (Source: WRIGHT)


4
100834 biogeochemistry [No description is listed]

21
100835 biogeographical region

Area of the Earth's surface defined by the species of fauna and flora it contains. (Source: ALL)


17
100836 biogeography

The science concerned with the geographical distribution of animal and plant life. (Source: MGH)


90
100839 biological activity [No description is listed]

2
100841 biological analysis

The analysis of a substance in order to ascertain its influence on living organisms. (Source: PHCa)


9
100842 biological attribute

Properties or features belonging to living organisms. (Source: CEDa)


0
111675 biological contamination

The presence in the environment of living organisms or agents derived by viruses, bacteria, fungi, and mammal and bird antigens that can cause many health effects. (Source: KORENa)


0
113118 biological cycle

A series of transformations or biological events which follow one after the other one, reaching at the end of the cycle the initial conditions, as in the life cycle of many animal and plant organisms. (Source: DELFIN)


0
100846 biological development

The action of growing of living organisms. (Source: RRDA)


2
100849 biological effect

Biological effects include allergic reactions, respiratory disorders, hypersensitivity diseases and infectious diseases and can be caused by a variety of contaminants and pollutants. (Source: RRDA)


2
111678 biological effect of pollution

Effects of pollution on living systems. (Source: RRDA)


0
100851 biological engineering

The application of engineering principles and techniques to living organisms. It is largely concerned with the design of replacement body parts, such as limbs, heart valves, etc. (Source: UVAROV)


0
110136 biological heritage

The inheritance and preservation of the earth's or a particular region's balanced, integrated functionality as a natural habitat, with special concern for the water resources necessary to maintain the ecosystem. (Source: TOE)


1
100856 biological indicator

A species or organism that is used to grade environmental quality or change. (Source: ALL)


4
100861 biological monitoring

The direct measurement of changes in the biological status of a habitat, based on evaluations of the number and distribution of individuals or species before and after a change. (Source: ALL)


16
100862 biological nitrogen fixation [No description is listed]

0
100864 biological pest control

Any living organism applied to or introduced into the environment that is intended to function as a pesticide against another organism declared to be a pest. (Source: LEE)


8
100865 biological pollutant

Viruses, bacteria, fungi, and mammal and bird antigens that may be present in the environment and cause many health effects. (Source: KORENa)


0
100866 biological pollution

Disturbance of the ecological balance by the accidental or deliberate introduction of a foreign organism, animal or plant species into an environment. (Source: WRIGHT)


0
100867 biological process

Processes concerning living organisms. (Source: CEDa)


1
100868 biological production

1) The amount and rate of production which occur in a given ecosystem over a given time period. It may apply to a single organism, a population, or entire communities and ecosystems. 2) The quantity of organic matter or its equivalent in dry matter, carbon, or energy content which is accumulated during a given period of time. (Source: PARCOR / MGH)


0
107137 biological reserve

An area of land and/or of water designated as having protected status for purposes of preserving certain biological features. Reserves are managed primarily to safeguard these features and provide opportunities for research into the problems underlying the management of natural sites and of vegetation and animal populations. Regulations are normally imposed controlling public access and disturbance. (Source: GOOD)


27
100873 biological resource

Wild organisms harvested for subsistence, commerce, or recreation (such as fish, game, timber or furbearers); domesticated organisms raised by agriculture, aquaculture, and silviculture; and ecosystems cropped by livestock. (Source: WPR)


2
111771 biological test

The laboratory determination of the effects of substances upon specific living organisms. (Source: GILP96)


0
112601 biological treatment

Process that uses microorganisms to decompose organic wastes either into water, carbon dioxide, and simple inorganic substances, or into simpler organic substances, such as aldehydes and acids. The purpose of a biological treatment system is to control the environment for microorganisms so that their growth and activity are enhanced, and provide a means for maintaining high concentration of the microorganisms in contact with the wastes. (Source: PARCOR)


0
100878 biological waste gas purification

Processes for removing impurities from waste gas based on the employing of microorganisms. (Source: BIOTGLa)


0
100879 biological waste treatment

A generic term applied to processes that use microorganisms to decompose organic wastes either into water, carbon dioxide, and simple inorganic substances, such as aldehydes and acids. The purpose of biological waste treatment is to control either the environment for microorganisms so that their growth and activity are enhanced, and to provide a means for maintaining high concentrations of the microorganisms in contact with the wastes.


0
112287 biological wastewater treatment

Types of wastewater treatment in which biochemical or bacterial action is intensified to oxidize and stabilize the unstable organic matter present. Examples of this type of treatment use intermittent sand filters, trickling filters, and activated sludge processes and sludge digestion. (Source: WWC)


0
109149 biological water balance

The amount of ingoing and outgoing water in a system, which are assumed to be equal in the long term so that the water budget will balance. (Source: ALL)


11
100880 biological weapon

Living organisms (or infective material derived from them) which are intended to cause disease or death in animals, plants, or man, and which depend for their effects on their ability to multiply in the person, animal or plant attacked. Various living organisms (for example, rickettsiae, viruses and fungi), as well as bacteria, can be used as weapons. (Source: WPR)


0
4 Biology [No description is listed]

1
100881 biology

A division of the natural sciences concerned with the study of life and living organisms. (Source: MGH)


106
100882 bioluminescence

The production of light of various colors by living organisms (e.g. some bacteria and fungi, glow-worms and many marine animals). Luminescence is produced by a biochemical reaction, which is catalyzed by an enzyme. In some animals the light is used as a mating signal; in others it may be a protective device. In deep-sea forms luminous organs may serve as lanterns. (Source: MGH)


0
111672 biomarker

A normal metabolite that, when present in abnormal concentrations in certain body fluids, can indicate the presence of a particular disease or toxicological condition. (Source: DICCHE)


4
100883 biomass

Biomass refers strictly speaking to the total weight of all the living things in an ecosystem. However, it has come to refer to the amount of plant and crop material that could be produced in an ecosystem for making biofuels and other raw materials used in industry, for example. (Source: WRIGHT)


94
100885 biomass energy

A renewable energy source that makes use of such biofuels as methane (biogas) generated by sewage, farm, industrial, or household organic waste materials. Other biofuels include trees grown in so-called energy forests or other plants such as sugar cane grown for their energy potential. Biomass energy relies on combustion and therefore produces carbon dioxide; its use would not therefore alleviate the greenhouse effect. (Source: UVAROV)


30
100888 biophysics

The hybrid science involving the application of physical principles and methods to study and explain the structures of living organisms and the mechanics of life processes. (Source: MGH)


3
100889 bioreactor

A container, such as a large fermentation chamber, for growing living organisms that are used in the industrial production of substances such as pharmaceuticals, antibodies, or vaccines. (Source: PORT)


0
100890 biorhythm

A cyclically recurring pattern of physiological states in an organism or organ, such as alpha rhythm or circadian rhythm; believed by some to affect physical and mental states and behaviour. (Source: CED)


0
100891 biosafety

The combination of knowledge, techniques and equipment used to manage or contain potentially infectious materials or biohazards in the laboratory environment, to reduce or prevent harm to laboratory workers, other persons and the environment. (Source: BIOSAF / OHS)


5
100892 biosphere

That part of the Earth and atmosphere capable of supporting living organisms. (Source: LBC)


1
100894 biosphere reserve

Protected land and coastal areas that are approved under the Man and Biosphere programme (MAB) in conjunction with the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES). Each reserve has to have an ecosystem that is recognized for its diversity and usefulness as a conservation unit. The reserves have at least one core area where there can be no interference with the natural ecosystem. A transition zone surrounds this and within it scientific research is allowed. Beyond this is a buffer zone which protects the whole reserve from agricultural, industrial and urban development. Biosphere reserves and buffer zones were regarded as examples of a new generation of conservation techniques. (Source: WRIGHT)


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100895 biosynthesis

Production, by synthesis or degradation, of a chemical compound by a living organism. (Source: MGH)


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112814 biotechnological hazard

A danger to humans, animals or the environment posed by the application of advanced biological techniques in the manufacture of industrial products, such as the risk or harm that results from exposure to infectious bacteria, viruses or fungi. (Source: APD / FFD)


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100898 biotechnology

A combination of biology and technology. It is used to describe developments in the application of biological organisms for commercial and scientific purposes. So bio stands for biology and the science of life and tech stands for technology or the tools and techniques that the biotechnologists have in their workbox. Those tools and techniques include microorganisms and a range of methods for manipulating them such as genetic engineering. (Source: WRIGHT)


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