1) The development of desert conditions as a result of human activity or climatic changes. 2) The process of land damage which allows the soil to spread like a desert in arid and semi-arid regions. There is a loss of vegetative cover and the soil deteriorates in texture, nutrient content and fertility. Desertification affects the lives of three-quarters of the world's population, 70% of all drylands and one quarter of the total land area of the planet. There are many reasons for desertification, but the majority are caused by human activities, overgrazing, deforestation, poor land management and over-exploitation. Agenda 21 states that the priority in combating desertification should be establishing preventive measures for lands that are not yet, or are only slightly, degraded. (Source: LBC / WRIGHT)

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Loris K, Jürgens N, Veste M 2001. Zonobiom III: Die Namib-Wüste im südwestlichen Afrika (Namibia, Südafrika, Angola). In: Sustainable land use in deserts. Sustainable land use in deserts 441-498
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Die Namib Wueste im SW Afrika_Teil1_2001.pdf 42.96 MB
United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) 2013. Convention to Combat Desertification.
Ministry of Environment and Tourism (MET) 2010. National Policy on Climate Change for Namibia, September 2010.
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National Policy on Climate Change for Namibia_2010.pdf 722.18 KB
Foden W, Midgley GF, Hughes G, Bond WJ, Thuiller W, Hoffman MT, Kaleme P, Underhill LG, Rebelo A, Hannah L 2007. A changing climate is eroding the geographical range of the Namib Desert tree Aloe through population declines and dispersal lags. Diversity and Distributions 13 (5) 645-653
Senut B, Pickford M, Segalen L 2009. Neogene desertification of Africa. Comptes Rendus Geoscience 341 (8-9) 591-602
Stringer LC, Dyer JC, Reed MS, Dougill AJ, Twyman C, Mkwambisi D 2009. Adaptations to climate change, drought and desertification: local insights to enhance policy in southern Africa. Environment: Science and Policy 12 (7) 748-765
Seely M, Klintenberg P 2007. Can information circulation contribute to combating desertification?. AIDCCD – Active exchange of experience on indicators and development of perspectives in the context of UNCCD: Role of information circulation systems in scientific and practical approaches to combat desertification. Proceedings of the International Seminar 14-23
Seely MK, Klintenberg P, Kruger AS 2006. Integrated approach for use of desertification benchmarks and indicators: an example from Namibia. AIDCCD – Active exchange of experience on indicators and development of perspectives in the context of UNCCD, Local and regional desertification indicators in a global perspective: seminar proceedings 65-73
Klintenberg P, Seely M 2005. State of the art on existing indicators and their use for desertification monitoring and CCD implementation in southern Africa. AIDCCD active exchange of experience on indicators and development of perspectives in the context of UNCCD: Report on the state of art on existing indicators and CCD implementation in the UNCCD Annexes 95-139
Seely M, Dirkx E, Hager C, Klintenberg P, Roberts C, von Oertzen D 2008. Advances in desertification and climate change research: are they accessible for application to enhance adaptive capacity?. Global and Planetary Change 64 (3-4) 236-243
Schlesinger WH, Reynolds JF, Cunningham GL, Huenneke LF, Jarrell WM, Virginia RA, Whitford WG 1990. Biological Feedbacks in Global Desertification. Science 247 (4946) 1043-1048
Hulme M, Kelly M 1993. Exploring the links between Desertification and Climate Change. Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development 35 (6) 4-45
Reynolds JF, Smith DMS, Lambin EF, Turner BL, Mortimore M, Batterbury SPJ, Downing TE, Dowlatabadi H, Fernández RJ, Herrick JE, Huber-Sannwald E, Jiang H, Leemans R, Lynam T, Maestre FT, Ayarza M, Walker B 2007. Global Desertification: Building a Science for Dryland Development. Science 316 (5826) 847-851
Symeonakis E, Drake N 2004. Monitoring deserti?cation and land degradation over sub-Saharan Africa. International Journal of Remote Sensing 25 (3) 573-592
Thomas DSG 1997. Science and the deserti?cation debate. Journal of Arid environments 37 (4) 599-608
Krogh SN, Zeisset MS, Jackson E, Whitford WG 2002. Presence/absence of a keystone species as an indicator of rangeland health. Journal of Arid Environments 50 (3) 513-519
Zeidler J, Hanrahan S, Scholes M 2002. Land-use intensity affects range condition in arid to semi-arid Namibia. Journal of Arid Environments 52 (3) 389-403
Cowling RM, Dlamini TS, Stock WD 1999. Plant Induced Fertile Islands as Possible Indicators of Desertification in a Succulent Desert Ecosystem in Northern Namaqualand, South Africa. Plant Ecology 142 (1/2 The Plant Ecology of Namaqualand, South Africa (Jun., 1999)) 161-167
Hill J, Hostert P, Tsiourlis G, Kasapidis P, Udelhoven Th, Diemer C 1998. Monitoring 20 years of increased grazing impact on the Greek island of Crete with earth observation satellites. Journal of Arid Environments 39 165-178
Verón SR, Paruelo JM, Oesterheld M 2006. Assessing desertification. Journal of Arid Environments 66 (4) 751-763
Rasmussen K, Fog B, Madsen JE 2001. Desertification in reverse? Observations from northern Burkina Faso. Global Environmental Change 11 (4) 271-282
Abahussain AA, Abdou AS, Al-Zubari WK, El-Deen NA, Abdul-Raheem M 2002. Desertification in the Arab Region: analysis of current status and trends. Journal of Arid Environments 51 (4) 521-545
Klintenberg P, Seely M 2004. Land Degradation Monitoring in Namibia: A First Approximation. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 99 (1 - 3) 5 - 21
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Land Degradation Monitoring in Namibia_A First Approximation.pdf 1.52 MB
Seely M, Moser P 2004. Connecting Community Action and Science to Combat Desertification: Evaluation of a Process. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 99 (1 - 3) 33 - 55
Ward D, Ngairorue BT 2000. Are Namibia's grasslands desertifying?. Journal of Range Management 53 138 - 144