Water resources governance in the upper Swakop basin of Namibia
This dissertation examined and presented adaptive water governance analysis and tools for the Upper Swakop Basin (USB) in Namibia where integrated river basin management is still in its infancy. The water governance concerns in the basin include pollution monitoring and control challenges that are further threatening the security and adequacy of the developed drinking water sources. By applying and triangulating different methods (models, statistical analysis, quantitative and qualitative measures etc.), this study uniquely analysed the water governance issues in the Upper Swakop Basin. The objectives of the study were to assess the water quality at potential pollution sources and at major receiving waters in the Upper Swakop Basin based on secondary data obtained from key stakeholders; to evaluate the adequacy and availability of drinking water sources in the USB; to assess the ethical, social and acceptability perceptions of water reuse for potable purposes based on primary data obtained from a purposive stakeholder survey; to qualitatively assess water governance structures and participation as well as to evaluate overall water governance processes and outcomes in the USB. Water quality parameters were assessed using descriptive statistics, extreme value analysis, spatial analysis and some of the parameters were compared to those given in the water quality regulations and standards of Namibia using ANOVA. The adequacy and availability of water was assessed using the simple water balance method, the Box-Jenkins ARIMA time series forecasting models, and the WEAP model. The ethical, social and health acceptability views and perceptions on water reuse for potable purposes were assessed using frequency tables, charts, and graphs. Stakeholder participation was analysed using scenario workshops, mediated modelling and social multi-criteria evaluation methods and was based on the ADVISOR framework. The researcher developed the 7"I"s water governance tool which was used to map stakeholders and to assess the overall water governance performance of the USB.
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