Intensive grazing by animals, for example cattle, sheep or goats, on an area of pasture. It has become a serious threat to the world's rangelands and grasslands. Several factors have led to overgrazing, which leads to the soil being degraded and becoming liable to erosion by wind and rain, and even to desertification. The main pressures leading to widespread overgrazing have been the need to increase the size and numbers of herds to produce more food for an increasing human population, and the transformation of traditional pasture land into plantations to grow cash crops. Throughout the dry tropics, where traditionally herds ranged over vast areas, intensive livestock-rearing schemes have taken over, mostly to provide meat for the export market. Well-digging operations have also led to heavy concentrations of animals in small areas. (Source: WRIGHT)

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Southern African Institute for Environmental Assessment (SAIEA) 2016. Strategic environmental assessment of large-scale bush thinning and value-addition activities in Namibia - Final Report.
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Bush thinning SEA Report FINAL FINAL.docx 4.23 MB
Wasiolka B, Blaum N, Jeltsch F, Henschel J 2009. Behavioural responses of the lizard Pedioplanis l. lineoocellata to overgrazing. Acta Oecologica 35 157-162
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Behavioural responses of the lizard Pedioplanis_2009.pdf 198.38 KB
Bergholtz M, Piekarzewska M, Waernquist J, Vignuolo Y, Öberg H 2001. Land degradation - natural and human induced - Hoanib River catchment.
Leggett K, Fennessy J, Schneider S 2001. Hoanib catchment study, Northwestern Namibia Fauna.
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Hoanib catchment study_Northwestern Namibia Fauna.pdf 41.33 MB
Graz P 2008. The woody weed encroachment puzzle: gathering pieces. Ecohydrology 1 (4) 340-348
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Graz_2008.pdf 141.88 KB
Moleele N, Ringrose S, Arnberg W, Lunden B, Vanderpost C 2001. Assessment of vegetation indexes useful for browse (forage) prediction in semi-arid rangelands. International Journal of Remote Sensing 22 (5) 741-756
Pelser AJ, Kherehloa T 2000. Some causes and strategies pertaining to land degradation in southern Africa. South African Journal of Agricultural Extension 29 24-46
Zeidler J, Hanrahan S, Scholes M 2002. Land-use intensity affects range condition in arid to semi-arid Namibia. Journal of Arid Environments 52 (3) 389-403
Hill J, Hostert P, Tsiourlis G, Kasapidis P, Udelhoven Th, Diemer C 1998. Monitoring 20 years of increased grazing impact on the Greek island of Crete with earth observation satellites. Journal of Arid Environments 39 165-178
Warren A 1995. Changing understandings of African pastoralism and the nature of environmental paradigms. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers New Series 20 (2) 193-203
Ludwig JA, Coughenour MB, Liedloff AC, Dyer R 2001. Modelling the resilience of Australian savanna systems to grazing impacts. Environment International 27 167-172
Ward D, Ngairorue BT, Apollus A, Tjiveze H 2000. Perceptions and realities of land degradation in arid Otjimbingwe, Namibia. Journal of Arid Environments 45 (4) 337 - 356
Ward D, Ngairorue BT, Kathena J, Samuels R, Ofran Y 1998. Land degradation is not a necessary outcome of communal pastoralism in arid Namibia. Journal of Arid Environments 40 (4) 357 - 371
Moleele NM, Ringrose S, Matheson W, Vanderpost C 2002. More woody plants? the status of bush encroachment in Botswana's grazing areas. Journal of Environmental Management 64 (1) 3 - 11
Klintenberg P, Verlinden A 2008. Water points and their influence on grazing resources in central northern Namibia. Land Degradation and Development 19 (1) 1 - 20