earth's crust

The outer layers of the Earth's structure, varying between 6 and 48 km in thickness, and comprising all the material above the Mohorovicic Discontinuity (a seismic discontinuity occurring between the crust of the earth and the underlying mantle; the discontinuity occurs at an average depth of 35 km below the continents and at about 10 km below the oceans). The earlier idea of a cool solid skin overlaying a hot molten interior has now been replaced by a concept of a crust composed of two shells: an inner basic unit composed of sima (oceanic crust) and an outer granitic unit composed of sial (continental crust). (Source: WHIT)

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Hövermann J 1978. Formen und Formung in der Pränamib (Flächen-Namib). Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie 30 55-73
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Bauer K, Schulze A, Ryberg T, Sobolev SV, Weber MH 2003. Classification of lithology from seismic tomography: A case study from the Messum igneous complex, Namibia. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth (1978-2012) 108 (B3)
Fernàndez M, Afonso JC, Ranalli G 2010. The deep lithospheric structure of the Namibian volcanic margin. Tectonophysics 481 (1-4) 68-81
Eckardt FD, Drake N, Goudie AS, White K, Viles H 2001. The role of playas in pedogenic gypsum crust formation in the Central Namib Desert: a theoretical model. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 26 (11) 1177-1193
Haack U, Martin H 1983. Geochronology of the Damara Orogen — A Review. Intracontinental Fold Belts, Case Studies in the Variscan Belt of Europe and the Damara Belt in Namibia 839-846
Kgaswane EM, Nyblade AA, Julia J, Dirks PHGM, Durrheim RJ, Pasyanos ME 2009. Shear wave velocity structure of the lower crust in southern Africa: Evidence for compositional heterogeneity within Archaean and Proterozoic terrains. Journal of Geophysical Research 114 1 - 19
Watson A 1979. Gypsum crusts in deserts. Journal of Arid. Journal of Arid Environments 2 (1) 3-21