This paper presents an overview of the 'Late White' rock paintings of south-central and southern Africa. It is argued that the most recent paintings were produced by matrilineal or bilateral Bantu-speaking agriculturists, although links with earlier hunter-gatherer groups are also implied. It is noted that certain motifs reoccur over great geographical distances. Ethnographic data are used in order to suggest a possible meaning for these motifs and for the paintings in general. It is argued that many of these paintings embody conceptual associations linking them to fertility. A general outline of the most obvious associations is presented, and a plea is made for detailed regional surveys in order to explain temporal and spatial differences.