Sustainable use of non-renewable groundwater in northern Namibia. Seminar paper conducted in the lecture African Ecology given by Dr. Philip Greenwood

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In Namibia, one on the driest countries in Africa south of the Sahara, where surface water resources are often scare and unreliable, groundwater is the major water source (Christelis and Struckmeier, 2011, p. 6). 300 Mm3/yr of renewable groundwater (Christelis and Struckmeier, 2011, p. 11) are available in Namibia and the annual national water consumption was about 300 Mm3 in 2000 (Christelis and Struckmeier, 2011, p. 14). However the renewable groundwater is unequally distributed over the country and does not ensure the water supply for all the regions in Namibia. Some areas have non-renewable groundwater resources, for example the Cuvelai-Etosha Basin (CEB) in the northern Namibia and southern Angola. 2012 a new aquifer with 5 Bm3 non-renewable groundwater was discovered; the Ohangwena II aquifer contains enough drinking water to supply central and north Namibia for up to 400 years (Kluge, 2012). This paper aims to investigate how non-renewable groundwater can be part of the solution of sustainable development. What are a) the opportunities and b) the challenges of Ohangwena II aquifer exploitation for a sustainable development? The results will contribute to the discussion of the role of non-renewable groundwater to sustainable and regional development by means of a practical example. The intent of this paper is not to advocate one position neither to present some of the basic philosophical issues related to the utilization of non-renewable groundwater, this has already been done (Maliva and Missimer, 2012), but to discuss one scenario and its implications on the basis of a concrete example.

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