Title:

Hunting, healing, and hxaro Exchange. A long-term perspective on !Kung (Ju/'hoansi) large-game hunting

Author(s):
Publication Year:
2002
Abstract:

The question of why hunters target large game knowing that most of the meat will end up far beyond their own hearths is an intriguing one. It raises the issue of whether foragers pursue nonnutritional Goals in food procurement and which goals they pursue. Here, I will use data from studies that have been carried out over a 34-year period among the Ju/'hoansi (!Kung Bushmen) to evaluate four hypotheses concerning why foragers target large game: reciprocity, costly signaling, nepotism, and long-term political goals aimed at bringing about conditions conducive to cooperative breeding. I will propose on the basis of qualitative and quantitative data that (1) all four hypotheses identify benefits that are gained by Ju/'hoansi through producing and distributing a surplus of meat, (2) different benefits might be important at different stages of a man's life, and (3) the pursuit of broader political goals merits serious consideration in accounting for men's work effort. Keywords: Hunter-gatherers, !Kung Bushmen (Ju/hoansi), Food sharing, Exchange, Cooperative breeding, Costly signaling, Nepotism, Hunting, Trance.

Publication Title:

Evolution and Human Behavior

Volume:
23
Pages:
407-436
Item Type:
Journal Article
Language:
en
Files:

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