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Manrai LA, Lascu D-A, Manrai AK 2019. A study of safari tourism in sub-Saharan Africa: An empirical test of Tourism A-B-C (T-ABC) model. Journal of Business Research (In Press, Corrected Proof)
… The competition for safari tourism in sub-Saharan Africa is intense. Aside from inter-country competition, there is also … context, it is important to understand the strengths and weaknesses of each country for safari tourism. We empirically test the relationship between tourism performance and multiple tourism dimensions, namely, tourism Attractions (A), Basics …
Jänis J 2011. The tourism-development nexus in Namibia : a study on national tourism policy and local tourism enterprises' policy knowledge.
… The tourism development nexus in southern Africa involves highly topical issues related to tourism planning, power relations, community participation, and natural resources. Namibia … particularly interesting context for the study of these issues due to its colonial legacy, vast tourism potential, recently adopted tourism policy and community-based approaches to tourism and …
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The tourism_development nexus in Namibia.pdf 3.89 MB
Baker MSP, Mearns K 2017. Applying sustainable tourism indicators to measure the sustainability performance of two tourism lodges in the Namib Desert. African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure (6) 1-22
… The tourism industry is one of the fastest growing industries worldwide, and its preeminent role as a fundamental contributor to the economic sector cannot be disputed. However, the tourism industry is not as harmless as previously thought, and its presence and growth has resulted in an increase in negative environmental impacts. The success of tourism rests on the quality of the natural environment where it has been developed. The …
Kavita E, Saarinen J 2016. Tourism and rural community development in Namibia: policy issues review. Fennia 194 (1) 79-88
… During the past decades, the tourism sector has become an increasing important issue for governments and regional agencies … searching for socio-economic development. Especially in the Global South the increasing tourism demand has been seen highly beneficial as evolving tourism can create direct and indirect income and employment effects to the host regions and …
Hüncke A, Koot S 2012. The presentation of Bushmen in cultural tourism: tourists' images of Bushmen and the tourism provider's presentation of (Hai//om) Bushmen at Treesleeper Camp, Namibia. Critical Arts (26) 671-689
… This article examines images of Bushmen in Namibian cultural tourism from two angles: that of the tourists and that of the community-based tourism provider. By looking at the tourist activities offered at Treesleeper Camp, it will be … that tourists’ perceptions and the images sought to be transmitted by the community-based local tourism provider are (partly) different. Tourists’ quest for authentic Bushmen cultures often …
Kalvelage L, Revilla Diez J, Bollig M 2021. Do tar roads bring tourism? Growth corridor policy and tourism development in the Zambezi region, Namibia. European Journal of Development Research
… There are high aspirations to foster growth in Namibia's Zambezi region via the development of tourism. The Zambezi region is a core element of the Kavango-Zambezi Transfrontier Conservation … and rural development. These conservation areas serve as a resource base for wildlife tourism, and growth corridor policy aims to integrate the region into tourism global production networks (GPNs) by means of infrastructure development. Despite the …
Mbaiwa JE 2005. Enclave tourism and its socio-economic impacts in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Tourism Management 26 157-172
… This paper draws on the dependency paradigm to explain the development of enclave tourism and its socio-economic impacts in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Using both primary and … indicates that international tourists, foreign safari companies and investors dominate the tourism industry in the Okavango Delta. The foreign domination and ownership of tourism facilities has led to the repatriation of tourism revenue, domination of management …
Saarinen J 2010. Local tourism awareness: Community views in Katutura and King Nehale Conservancy, Namibia. Development Southern Africa (27) 713-724
… In Namibia the tourism industry is increasingly used for socioeconomic development. Recent government policies have highlighted the role of community-based tourism in particular, a policy tool that aims to ensure that local communities can participate actively in tourism and have a fairly high degree of control over tourism development and practices, so as …
Shen F, Hughey KFD, Simmons DG 2008. Connecting the Sustainable Livelihoods Approach and Tourism: A Review of the Literature. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management (15) 19-31
Tourism has been increasingly used for, and directly linked with, rural poverty reduction in … poverty reduction, the Sustainable Livelihoods Approach (SLA), may not fit fully the tourism situation, and vice versa. Based on a review of the literature we first suggest that sustainable livelihoods for tourism should be viewed in a broader tourism context, rather than merely taking tourism as a …
Lapeyre R 2006. Do local communities have capacity to regulate the tourism commons? The case of tourism resource in communal landrnconservancies, Namibia.
… Namibia sustainable development depends on the country's rich natural capital. Thus, nature tourism is thought to be a tool to reconcile apparently opposite objectives of conservation and poverty alleviation in communal lands. Tourism in Namibian communal lands is based on natural resources and amenities that can be … analysing institutions that emerge in Namibian rural areas to regulate what is said to be the "tourism commons". Supply of governance structures is made through devolution of new property …
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Do local communities have capacity to regulate the tourism commons.pdf 436.57 KB
Ministry of Environment, Forestry and Tourism (MEFT) 2020. Socio-economic Impact Assessment of COVID-19 on tourism sector in Namibia and development of a strategy to rebuild the Tourism Sector in the context of the covid-19 pandemic (For hiring the National Consultant and Enumerator).
… of a medium-term strategy that will assist Namibia to develop, finance and implement its tourism sector revival efforts so that the sector is resilient and able to recover from Covid-19 … the Medium Term Expenditure Framework (MTEF) to recover from the impacts of the pandemic on the Tourism sector with a focus on the National Protected Areas, Community Conservancies and Nature-Based Tourism (NBT) enterprises. … Socio-economic Impact Assessment of COVID-19 on tourism sector in …
Medina-Muñoz DR, Medina-Muñoz RD, Gutiérrez-Pérez FJ 2016. The impacts of tourism on poverty alleviation: an integrated research framework. Journal of Sustainable Tourism (24) 270-298
… This paper aims to contribute to the academic research on tourism and poverty alleviation, by providing an integrated research framework on the impacts of tourism on poverty. First, a conceptual discussion is presented in order to understand the potential of tourism to reduce poverty, as well as different approaches to promoting a direct link between …
Mbaiwa JE, Darkoh MBK 2008. The socio-economic and environmental effects of the implementation of the tourism policy of 1990 in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Botswana Notes and Records 39 (Tourism as a Sustainable Development Factor) 138-155
… This paper evaluates the impacts of Botswana's Tourism Policy of 1990 on tourism development in the Okavango Delta. This evaluation is selective and based on specific … clauses of the policy which focus on the following: the general and specific objectives, tourism marketing, local participation and localization of tourism enterprises. Secondary and …
Southern African Institute for Environmental Assessment (SAIEA) 2014. Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) of the tourism sector for the Greater Sossusvlei - Namib Landscape.
… This Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) of the tourism sector in the Greater Sossusvlei-Namib Landscape Area (GSNLA) has two main objectives: To help achieve a strong and sustainable tourism industry in the landscape, which contributes to improving human quality of life on … the development plan of the landscape and inform future decision-making in and around the tourism sector. Growth of the tourism sector in the GSNLA is embedded in the overall framework …
Snyman SL 2012. The role of tourism employment in poverty reduction and community perceptions of conservation and tourism in southern Africa. Journal of Sustainable Tourism (20) 395–416
… High-end ecotourism operations in African protected areas often claim to share the benefits of ecotourism with surrounding rural communities through employment as well as “trickle down” effects of revenues that result from such operations. The receipt of benefits from ecotourism is also claimed to promote an appreciation of biological diversity and conservation in …
Environmental Evaluation Associates of Namibia (EEAN) 1997. Report on Tourism Data in Kunene Region. Ministry of Environment and Tourism.
… Report on Tourism Data in Kunene Region. Keywords: Tourism, economic development, conservation, petrified forests, Hoanib gate, Kaokoland, Kunene. … Report on Tourism Data in Kunene Region. Ministry of Environment and Tourism
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Report on tourism data in Kunene Region.pdf 3.91 MB
Musora O, Mbaiwa JE, Murray-Hudson M 2017. Tourists' perceptions of environmental impacts of tourism development on water resources in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure (6)
… The Okavango Delta is a unique inland water system supporting tourism development in Botswana. While the ecological integrity of the wetland remains intact, … there are signs that it is being slowly eroded by increasing anthropogenic pressures like tourism activities. This study describes tourists' perceptions of environmental impacts of tourism activities in the Okavango Delta in a way to enhance wetland resources management. …
Lepetu J, Bernard FE, Orford CE 2008. Limits of acceptable change for tourism in the Okavango Delta. Botswana Notes and Records 39 (Tourism as a Sustainable Development Factor) 98-112
… The Okavango Delta's booming tourism industry raises obvious questions about the future. Has tourism already surpassed some critical environmental and social thresholds? Is tourism endangering the ecological well-being of the Okavango Delta? These are questions about …
Ezeuduji IO 2017. Change management for sub-Saharan Africa's rural tourism development. Current Issues in Tourism (20) 946-959
… Managing transition from traditional livelihood activities to rural tourism in a local community is a sensitive process. The purpose of this paper is to point out and address risks and contingencies associated with rural tourism development in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), as a change process. This study conducted descriptive analysis of change management for SSA's rural tourism development. It is exploratory in nature and by no means conclusive. The occasional …
Ezeuduji IO 2015. Strategic event-based rural tourism development for sub-Saharan Africa. Current Issues in Tourism (18) 212-228
… with which rural sub-Saharan Africa can place itself in a favourable position within the global tourism industry. Strategic analyses of the rural tourism resources and capabilities present in this sub-continent, rural tourism key success factors, the external environment of rural tourism development and the local …
Poonyth D, Barnes J, Suich H, Monamati M 2001. Measuring the economic value of tourism in southern Africa: Tourism satellite and resource accounts for South Africa, Namibia and Botswana.
… for the development of satellite accounts (TSA) and natural asset base accounts (TRA) for tourism in South Africa, Namibia and Botswana. The countries and their relevant agencies were … institutional Setting required, and potential for funding. … Measuring the economic value of tourism in southern Africa Tourism satellite and resource accounts ... …
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jwwREPTourism FINAL REPORT 1.pdf 529.88 KB
Turner RL 2004. Communities, conservation, and tourism-based development: Can community-based nature tourism live up to its promise?. Journal of International Wildlife Law and Policy (7) 161-182
… popularity in conservation circles, some advocates of this approach have looked towards nature tourism as a means to ensure that participating communities benefit from CBNRM. This paper analyzes the opportunities and tensions generated by efforts to use conservation‐based tourism as a catalyst for economic development. By exploring how historical legacies position actors and influence relationships between them, characterizing the nature tourism sector and its logic, and examining how liberalizing states are likely to engage with …
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Communities_conservation_and tourism_based development.pdf 773.32 KB
Moswete N, Lacey G 2015. "Women cannot lead": empowering women through cultural tourism in Botswana. Journal of Sustainable Tourism (23) 600-617
… To rebalance the safari-tourism led tourism development policies in Botswana, the government has initiated a community-based cultural tourism policy, providing opportunities for women to become leaders and entrepreneurs. After …
Naidoo R, Weaver LC, Diggle RW, Matongo G, Stuart-Hill G, Thouless C 2016. Complementary benefits of tourism and hunting to communal conservancies in Namibia. Conservation Biology 30 (3) 628-638
Tourism and hunting both generate substantial revenues for communities and private operators in … may result from these two activities. We evaluated financial and in-kind benefit streams from tourism and hunting on 77 communal conservancies in Namibia from 1998 to 2013, where … for all communal conservancies to characterize whether benefits were derived from hunting or tourism. We classified these benefits into 3 broad classes and examined how benefits flowed to …
Kalvelage L 2021. Capturing value from wildlife tourism: growth corridor policy and global production networks in Zambezi, Namibia.
… Two popular policies are applied that build on the commodification of nature via wildlife tourism: growth corridor policy is envisioned to enable the coupling into global production networks (GPN) via increased connectivity and targeted investments into tourism. Similarly, community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) schemes are designed to attract foreign investments in the safari and hunting tourism sector to benefit rural communities. Despite the hopes that are set on international …
2007. Ngamiland Tourism Development Plan - Limits of acceptable change, Tourism Monitoring Programme, Implementation Programme.
… Ngamiland Tourism Development Plan - Limits of acceptable change, Tourism Monitoring Programme, Impl... …
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Ngamiland tourism development plan_ Volume 1.pdf 100.12 MB
Spenceley A, Meyer D 2012. Tourism and poverty reduction: theory and practice in less economically developed countries. Journal of Sustainable Tourism (20) 297-317
… This paper analyses the evolution of the theory and practice of tourism development aimed at poverty reduction in less economically developed countries (LEDCs). It critically reviews two central early themes in this area: community-based tourism projects, and the focus on structural conditions and power relations between global players and local communities. The paper considers the potential strengths of tourism development for LEDCs and summarises the many new subject area developments. A review of …
Kalvelage L, Revilla Diez J, Bollig M How much remains? Local value capture from tourism in Zambezi, Namibia. Tourism Geographies
… High hopes are pinned on tourism and its catalytic potential to foster growth in remote rural areas. In the Zambezi region of northeastern Namibia, tourism plays a key role in the design of community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) … are granted rights for the use of natural resources, which are then transferred to tourism investors and trophy-hunting companies. Thus, conservancies partly determine tourism’s …
Neto F 2003. A new approach to sustainable tourism development: Moving beyond environmental protection. Natural Resources Forum (27) 212-222
Tourism is one of the largest and fastest growing industries in the world. It is an increasingly … regions. In this article, I examine the main economic benefits and environmental impacts of tourism, and review the development of the international sustainable tourism agenda. While much of international tourism activity takes place within the developed …
Rogerson CM 2007. Reviewing Africa in the global tourism economy. Development Southern Africa (24) 361-379
… Africa is a small but expanding region of the global tourism economy. This article has two objectives. The first is to provide a profile of tourism in Africa and indicate the continent's position in the global tourism economy. The second is to offer an overview of African tourism research and more …
Mbaiwa JE, Stronza AL 2011. Changes in resident attitudes towards tourism development and conservation in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Journal of Environmental Management (92) 1950-1959
… However, the impact of CBNRM on changes of resident attitudes towards conservation and tourism is not adequately researched. This paper, therefore, assesses the impacts of CBNRM on resident attitudes towards tourism development and conservation in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. The study purposively … results indicate changes in resident attitudes from being negative to positive towards tourism and conservation. These changes are triggered by economic benefits residents derived …
Saito N, Ruhanen L, Noakes S, Axelsen M 2018. Community engagement in pro-poor tourism initiatives: fact or fallacy? Insights from the inside. Tourism Recreation Research (43) 175-185
Tourism's economic impacts are considerable for many developing countries yet those most in need often benefit little from the tourism sector. As such, Pro Poor Tourism (PPT) has been advocated as a means of contributing to poverty alleviation. However, it …
Namibian Academy for Tourism and Hospitality (NATH).
Tourism is increasingly becoming one of the most important industries in Namibia. The Namibian Government realises the importance of tourism for the future economic development of Namibia and stresses the importance of adequate training as a pre-requisite to realise the full potential of tourism. Hence, the Namibian Academy for Tourism and Hospitality (NATH) was formally launched as …
Ashley C, Roe D 2002. Making tourism work for the poor: Strategies and challenges in southern Africa. Development Southern Africa (19) 61-82
… This article analyses strategies for 'pro-poor tourism' (PPT), ie strategies that increase the benefits to poor people from tourism development. Based on an international review of six pro-poor tourism case studies, it outlines the wide range of pro-poor tourism strategies used and their …
Stone MT, Nyaupane GP 2016. Protected areas, tourism and community livelihoods linkages: a comprehensive analysis approach. Journal of Sustainable Tourism (24) 673-693
… This study explores the linkages among protected areas, tourism and community livelihoods in a rural setting. The Chobe National Park and Chobe Enclave … (CCF) that provided a comprehensive approach. The study identified that protected areas, tourism and community livelihoods linkages have many inter-dependent community capitals … to multi-level governance arrangements that recognize community wildlife-based tourism potential co-exist with protected areas, have influence on community livelihoods and …
Novelli M, Barnes JI, Humavindu M 2006. The other side of the ecotourism coin: consumptive tourism in southern Africa. Journal of Ecotourism 5 (1-2) 62-79
… Over the 20th century, wildlife-based tourism has experienced significant growth, with increasing emphasis placed on ecotourism as one of the most beneficial forms of sustainable tourism. A widely accepted argument is that ecotourism is a non-consumptive practice far better …
Hemson G, Maclennan S, Mills G, Johnson P, Macdonald D 2009. Community, lions, livestock and money: A spatial and social analysis of attitudes to wildlife and the conservation value of tourism in a human–carnivore conflict in Botswana. Biological Conservation (142) 2718-2725
… horses and donkeys) losses to lions (Panthera leo) and attitudes to lions, livestock losses and tourism among livestock owners, village residents and tourism workers around Makgadikgadi Pans National Park in Botswana. Losses were not correlated … among people living in the more urbanized society of villages or among people working in tourism. Although four tourist camps were operating in the area, benefits from these operations …
Baker AC, Muteyauli PI, Shigwedha V, Swiegers S, Sweeney LF 2009. Domestic tourism in Namibia: Results of a 2006/7 survey.
… In developing Tourism Satellite Accounts (TSAs) for Namibia, key gaps in data and knowledge regarding the domestic tourism sector became apparent. In order to fill these gaps, the Ministry of Environment and Tourism (MET), Namibia Tourism Board (NTB) and other partners carried out a survey on domestic …
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Research Discussion Paper 80_2009.pdf 1.77 MB
Fourie J, Santana-Gallego M 2013. The determinants of African tourism. Development Southern Africa (30) 347-366
… that drive African-inbound (arrivals to Africa from other continents) and within-African tourism (arrivals from and to an African country). We find that the determinants of African-inbound and within-African tourism are not all that different from global tourism flows; repeat tourism, income, distance, land area and the standard dummy variables not …
Poonyth D, Barnes JI, Suich H, Monamati M 2001. Satellite and resource accounting as tools for tourism planning in southern Africa.
Tourism has an increasingly important role in the economies of southern African countries. It is … potential to contribute to economic growth in the region. The potential for improvements to tourism planning through development of tourism satellite accounts (TSA) to measure economic activity, and tourism asset resource …
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Research Discussion Paper 43_2001.pdf 78.46 KB
Lapeyre R 2010. Community-based tourism as a sustainable solution to maximise impacts locally? The Tsiseb Conservancy case, Namibia. Development Southern Africa (27) 757-772
… in a rural area of Namibia, this article assesses the potential contribution of community-based tourism enterprises (CBTEs) to poverty alleviation and empowerment. It shows that tourism income captured locally improves rural households' livelihoods and generates linkages in … However, this article provides counter evidence that the sustainability of such community tourism ventures is to be questioned. First, mainstreaming these projects within the competitive …
Johnson S 2010. Chapter 3: Tourism and Heritage Development. Makgadikgadi Framework Management Plan 2
Tourism is one of the largest and fastest growing industries in the world. It is an increasingly … expansion has also had detrimental environmental (and socio-cultural) impact in many regions. Tourism has been identified as a key strategy to contribute to the alleviation of poverty in the … growth next to mining. The Makgadikgadi Wetlands System (MWS) already has an incipient level of tourism taking place at present, although the main focus of tourism in the country to date has …
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Chapter 3_Tourism Heritage development_2010.pdf 1.86 MB
Lepetu J, Makopondo ROB, Darkoh MBK 2008. Community-based natural resource management and tourism partnership in Botswana: Which way forward?. Botswana Notes and Records 39 (Tourism as a Sustainable Development Factor) 113-124
… community involvement in environmental conservation and sustainable use of resources for tourism and extractive purposes. The study adopts qualitative research methods including … (CBO) currently involved with CBRNM. The key issues examined are: 1) the forms of CBNRM and tourism partnerships that are associated with specific outcomes within the designated areas; 2) the effectiveness of community-based natural resource management and tourism partnerships in the designated areas in realizing desired policy and community goals; …
Lapeyre R New state boundaries in tourism regulation in Namibia: The case of Brandberg Mountain, Namibia.
… This paper analyses Heritage management and tourism in Brandberg National Monument, Namibia. Heritage sites are composed of natural and … is very costly and rivalness leads to conflicts over resources and overexploitation. However, tourism option use of Heritage sites can bring sustainable development. To assure sustainable Heritage tourism, institutions have to emerge to regulate and coordinate relations between various …
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New state boundaries in tourism regulation in Namibia.doc 165 KB
Stander P 2008. Tourism and the Conservation of Desert Lions in Namibia.
Tourism can play an important role in the protection and conservation of wildlife and the natural environment. The simultaneous growth of wildlife populations, tourism, and community-based conservation during the past five years in the Kunene Region … to this. Under the current climate where local people benefit from wildlife, primarily through tourism, and communal conservancies enter into agreements with tour operators, the tourism
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Tourism and the Conservation of Desert Lions in Namibia.pdf 771.16 KB
Jacobs L, du Preez EA, Fairer-Wessels F 2020. To wish upon a star: Exploring Astro Tourism as vehicle for sustainable rural development. Development Southern Africa 37 (1) 87-104
Tourism is regarded as a key sector through which to bring about sustainable development in … hosting astronomy sites of global importance presents the ideal opportunity to develop Astro Tourism as niche offering. This paper explores the region's state of readiness to harness this … depicting the state of readiness. The paper describes how a unique experience such as Astro Tourism can be regarded as viable mechanism to bring about sustainable development in a rural …
Novelli M, Gebhardt K 2007. Community Based Tourism in Namibia: 'Reality Show' or 'Window Dressing'?. Current Issues in Tourism 10 (5) 443-479
… Since the 1970s, the African continent has experienced exponential growth in tourism, where growth in numbers of visitors has not necessarily meant economic, social or environmental benefits for the host community. A review of the literature concerning tourism development and its effects on local communities forms the basis for the investigation of the reasons behind community based tourism (CBT) being identified as a tool for development in Namibia. An assessment of the …
Millennium Challenge Account Namibia (MCA-N) 2006. MCA Namibia Program: Investment 3 - Promote private and community based Investment in Tourism. 139-180
… The Namibia tourism sector has performed solidly since independence in 1990. Over the past 15 years, … to 777,890 arrivals in 200522. Increased arrivals have, in turn, generated an escalation of the tourism industry's outputs, which increased by an average of 14% per year from 1991 to 199623, and by a total of 13% from 1998-200324. The recently developed Tourism Satellite Accounts (2006) found that tourism directly and/or indirectly generated …
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jwwREPMCA - Tourism Sector FINAL 2006 pages_sm.pdf 795.73 KB
Federation of Namibian Tourism Associations (FENATA).
… The dynamism and growth of the Namibian Tourism Industry is reflected in the success and strength of the Federation of Namibian Tourism Associations (FENATA). FENATA represents the different tourism products in Namibia, including car hire, accommodation facilities, the tour operators, …
Schachtschneider K 2002. Building new WDM regulations for the Namibian tourism sector on factors influencing current water-management practices at the enterprise level. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C 27 (11-22) 859-864
… at independence to rewrite and adapt its old policies, including those for water and tourism. Legal support for WDM through the Water Act and other sector-specific Acts is crucial … to understand which factors motivate people to adopt WDM initiatives. Within the Namibian tourism industry three main factors have been identified which influence the water-management approaches at tourist facilities. This paper discusses how the water and tourism decision makers can consider these factors when developing new regulations to introduce …

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