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Rigava N, Taylor R, Goredema L 2006. Participatory wildlife quota setting. Participatory Learning and Action 55: Practical tools for community conservation in southern Africa Theme Section 8 62-69
… (CBNRM). Most of southern Africa's CBNRM programmes depend on the sustainable management of wildlife and trophy hunting. Norman Rigava, Russell Taylor and Lilian Goredema, describe the development of participatory quota setting and its considerable power implications. The right of communities to set and …
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Participatory wildlife quota setting.pdf 188.92 KB
Mogomotsi PK, Mogomots GEJ, Dipogiso K, Phonchi-Tshekiso ND, Stone LS, Badimo D 2020. An analysis of communities' attitudes toward wildlife and implications for wildlife sustainability. Tropical Conservation Science 13 1-9
… Negative human-wildlife interactions do not only have adverse effects on rural livelihoods but also lead to negative attitudes toward wildlife conservation. This research uses primary data collected from 221 randomly selected … in the study area. The study concludes that the negative attitudes of communities toward wildlife and wildlife conservation threaten wildlife sustainability in the Okavango Delta. There …
Cooney R, Roe D, Dublin H, Booth AJ 2018. Wild life, wild livelihoods: Involving communities in sustainable wildlife management and combatting the illegal wildlife trade..
… UN Environment Assembly Resolution 2/14 on Illegal trade in wildlife and wildlife products calls for an analysis of international best practice with regard to involving local communities in wildlife management. In response to this resolution, UN Environment has commissioned the …
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WLWL_Report_web.pdf 6.57 MB
Turner WC, Périquet S, Goelst CE, Vera KB, Cameron EZ, Alexander KA, Belant JL, Cloete CC, du Preez P, Getz WM, Hetem RS, Kamath PL, Mackenzie M, Mendelsohn J, Mfune JKE, Muntifering JR, Portas R, Scott HA, Strauss WM, Versfeld W, Wachter B, Wittemyer G, Kilian JW 2022. Africa's drylands in a changing world: Challenges for wildlife conservation under climate and land-use changes in the Greater Etosha Landscape. Global Ecology and Conservation 38 e02221
… Etosha National Park in northern Namibia is an iconic dryland system with a rich history of wildlife conservation and research. A recent research symposium on wildlife conservation in the Greater Etosha Landscape (GEL) highlighted increased concern of how intensification of global change will affect wildlife conservation based on participant responses to a questionnaire. The GEL includes Etosha …
Algotsson E 2006. Wildlife conservation through people-centred approaches to natural resource management programmes and the control of wildlife exploitation. Local Environment (11) 79-93
… effect to its varied obligations. Inconsistency and incompleteness of regulations governing wildlife conservation in conjunction with the failure to implement objectives to conserve wildlife through restricted exploitation with the political, social and economic motives of … It is suggested that where communities are expected to take part in the management of wildlife resources, the responsibility for sustainable wildlife management must be linked to the …
Keeping D, Kashe N, Langwane H, Sebati P, Molese N, Gielen M-C, Keitsile-Barungwi A, Khukwe O, Brahman N 2019. Botswana's wildlife losing ground as Kalahari Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs) are dezoned for livestock expansion.
… to elephants and KAZA, discussion about the official dezoning of 8,268 km2 of free-ranging wildlife estate in the Kalahari ecosystem has been notably absent. Using track-based methods we quantified wildlife populations inhabiting this relinquished wilderness now awaiting imminent conversion to … which will become consumed, displaced or potential conflict animals. Erstwhile publicly-owned wildlife particularly important for local communities will effectively become de facto private …
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Botswanas wildlife losing ground.pdf 187.51 KB
Ledger E 2020. Stop The Illegal Wildlife Trade: The detection dogs sniffing out wildlife crime (Malawi).
… Until an illegal wildlife trade report was published in May 2015, Malawi's role in one of the world's largest … was largely unknown. The landlocked southeast African nation - bordered by countries with large wildlife populations - was revealed to be a major trafficking hub for ivory, pangolin scales, rhino horn and other illegal wildlife commodities. Malawi's weak identification and enforcement systems were being …
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Malawi_2020-10_Illegal wildlife trade_Journal of African Elephants.pdf 828.61 KB
2022. United for Wildlife hosts conference on combatting the Illegal Wildlife Trade in Southern Africa.
… The Royal Foundation’s United for Wildlife and The British High Commission Gaborone, co-hosted a United for Wildlife conference in Kasane, Botswana. Supported by Zambesia Conservation Alliance, the event … and conservation organisations from the region with a common purpose of addressing the Illegal Wildlife Trade (IWT) in Southern Africa. The conference focused on sharing best practices in …
Paterson B, Stuart-Hill G, Underhill LG, Dunne TT, Schinzel B, Brown C, Beytell B, Demas F, Lindeque P, Tagg J, Weaver C 2008. A fuzzy decision support tool for wildlife translocations into communal conservancies in Namibia. Environmental Modelling and Software 23 (5) 521-534
… A fuzzy logic knowledge based decision support system, Wildlife Introduction Advisor, was developed using NetWeaver to standardise the decision making process of selecting communal conservancies for wildlife translocation in Namibia. Wildlife translocations are a valuable conservation tool with benefits for both local …
Hachileka E 2003. Sustainability of wildlife utilisation in the Chobe District, Botswana. South African Geographical Journal (85) 50-57
… the influence of policies on the ecological, economic and sociological sustainability of wildlife utilisation using a case study of Chobe District in northern Botswana. The paper … assesses how some international conventions influence the conservation and utilisation of wildlife resources in Botswana. The approach used in the study was essentially a literature … information and clarify an contradictory issues found in the literature. The study found that wildlife management in Botswana is regulated and guided by the Wildlife Conservation and …
Government Gazette of the Republic of Namibia 2011. Government Notices, No. 144: Regulations relating to controlled wildlife products and trade: Controlled Wildlife Products and Trade  Act.
… No. 4773, 15 August 2011. Government Notices, No. 144: Regulations relating to controlled wildlife products and trade: Controlled Wildlife Products and Trade  Act, 2008. In these regulations a word or expressions defined in … has that meaning and, unless the context otherwise indicates - "the Act" means the Controlled Wildlife Products and Trade Act, 2008 (Act No. 9 of 2008). … Government Notices, No. 144: …
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Regulations relating to controlled wildlife products and trade.pdf 542.11 KB
Barnes JI, Schier C, van Rooy G 1997. Tourists' willingness to pay for wildlife viewing and wildlife conservation in Namibia.
… the economy of Namibia.. Some 13% of the country is set aside as parks for nature conservation. Wildlife stocks and scenic attributes are considerable, within these protected areas and outside … of this study was to derive quantitative data on the willingness of tourists to pay for wildlife viewing trips, park entry fees and the willingness to support wildlife conservation and community-based tourism initiatives and how these data could be used …
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Research Discussion Paper 15_1997.pdf 133.11 KB
Gaillard JC, van Niekerk D, Shoroma LB, Coetzee C, Amirapu T Wildlife hazards and disaster risk reduction. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction (33) 55-63
… This article makes a case for including wildlife and human-wildlife conflicts in both research on disasters and policies geared towards reducing the risk of disasters. It builds upon a scoping study conducted in Namibia to emphasise that wildlife hazards affect all dimensions of people's livelihoods, including physical, economic, …
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Wildlife hazards and disaster risk reduction.pdf 757.16 KB
Barnes JI 2001. Economic returns and allocation of resources in the wildlife sector of Botswana. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 31 (3-4) 141-153
Wildlife utilisation in Botswana was studied to find out (1) whether it generates positive … land uses were combined in linear programming and cost-benefit analyses. Results show that the wildlife resource in Botswana can contribute positively to national income, and this justifies … The sector is economically efficient, and contributes to Botswana's economic development. Wildlife uses need to be fully developed in ways that maximise their economic contributions. …
Prinsloo D, Riley-Smith S, Newton D 2021. Trading years for wildlife - An investigation into wildlife crime from the perspectives of offenders in Namibia.
… areas is on the rise. The extent of loss sustained by Namibia on account of the Illegal Wildlife Trade (IWT) is not reliably quantified (Anon., 2017). Wildlife populations for some of Namibia’s most iconic species - African Elephant Loxodonta … in 2019 (T. Petersen, MEFT, in litt. to D. Prinsloo, July 2020). … Trading years for wildlife - An investigation into wildlife crime from the perspectives of offenders in Namibia …
Muema D, Amukwa J 2019. Centre stage in wildlife conservation: Combatting wildlife crime in Zambezi Region – Namibia.
Wildlife crime is at the top of the international conservation agenda. In Namibia, a total of 86 communal conservancies manage wildlife outside of 12 national parks and rural Namibians earn income from tourism, related to high value species such as elephants and rhinos. … Centre stage in wildlife conservation: Combatting wildlife crime in Zambezi Region – Namibia …
Smit E 2019. 16 arrested for wildlife crimes: Protected wildlife species continue to be illegally hunted in northern Namibia.
… Sixteen suspects were arrested in connection with wildlife crimes in the past week. Eight of the suspects are Namibians and the rest … the Intelligence and Investigation Unit of the environment ministry indicate that a total of 21 wildlife products were seized last week. … 16 arrested for wildlife crimes: Protected wildlife species continue to be illegally hunted in northern Namibia …
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NAM_2019-10_16 arrested for wildlife crime_Namibian Sun.pdf 114.31 KB
Ashley C, Barnes J 1996. Wildlife Use for Economic Gain - the potential for wildlife to contribute to development in Namibia.
… and Tourism in 1993. One objective of the programme is ongoing research on the values of wildlife, and how to increase and realise these values. Several research findings have already … Papers. This paper seeks to consolidate findings to date on the question of values of wildlife utilisation. It therefore draws heavily on previous papers, while adding new information and analysis. … Wildlife Use for Economic Gain - the potential for wildlife to contribute to development in …
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Research Discussion Paper 12_1996.pdf 1.59 MB
Novelli M, Humavindu MN 2005. Chapter 14 – Wildlife tourism: Wildlife use vs local gain: trophy hunting in Namibia. Niche Tourism - Contemporary issues, trends and cases 171-182
… Chapter 14 - Wildlife tourism: Wildlife use vs local gain: trophy hunting in Namibia. … Niche Tourism - Contemporary issues, trends and cases … Chapter 14 – Wildlife tourism Wildlife use vs local gain trophy hunting in Namibia …
Mbaiwa JE 2005. Wildlife resource utilisation at Moremi Game Reserve and Khwai community area in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Journal of Environmental Management 77 (2) 144-156
… This paper uses the concept of sustainable development to examine the utilisation of wildlife resources at Moremi Game Reserve (MGR) and Khwai community area (NG 18/19) in the … and gathering economy; marked the beginning of resource conflicts between Khwai residents and wildlife managers; and, led to the development of negative attitudes of Khwai residents towards wildlife conservation. Since the late 1980s, a predominately foreign owned tourism industry …
Katjingisiua I, Mauney G 2020. Wildlife Credits - Innovation in conservation by and for Namibians. (2020)
… elephant communication and desert ecology. Another innovative first originating in Namibia is Wildlife Credits, which creates a direct incentive to keep wildlife on communal land by making performance payments to communities who actively protect and conserve wildlife and its habitat. Wildlife Credits is a type of payment for ecosystem services for …
Weise FJ, Wessels Q, Munro S, Solberg M 2014. Using artificial passageways to facilitate the movement of wildlife on Namibian farmland. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 44 (2) 161-166
Wildlife-proof fencing is increasing in extent as a result of the growing wildlife industry on private lands in southern Africa. In environments where such fences hinder the movements of free-ranging wildlife, the provision of artificial passageways can restore connectivity for some species. We …
Laverty TM, Teel TL, Thomas REW, Gawusab AA, Berger J 2019. Using pastoral ideology to understand human–wildlife coexistence in arid agricultural landscapes. Conservation Science and Practice 1 (5)
… knowledge is requisite for solutions to global conservation problems, including human–wildlife conflict, but gathering sufficient data to facilitate integration has proved difficult. … to these challenges, we drew upon psychological theory and long‐term ecological data on wildlife populations and conflict occurrence to inform qualitative research on pastoralists' values toward wildlife in the northern Namib Desert. We explored how values and ecological conditions shaped …
Kay CE 2009. Kenya's wildlife debacle: The true cost of banning hunting. Mule Deer Foundation Magazine (27) 22-27
… the United States and abroad, would like to ban hunting in the belief such a move would benefit wildlife, or at least that is what they claim when soliciting funds. It sounds simple, stop hunting animals and you will have more wildlife. Is this, though, a reasonable supposition? For an answer we need to look at the wildlife situation in Kenya for that African country banned all, and I do mean all, hunting in …
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Kenyas wildlife debacle.pdf 2.48 MB
van Schalkwyk DL, McMillin KW, Witthuhn RC, Hoffman LC 1991. The contribution of wildlife to sustainable natural resource utilization in Namibia: A Review. Sustainabilit (2) 3479-3499
… obtained ownership rights over land and livestock since the early 1900s; commercial rights over wildlife and plants were given to freehold farmers in 1967 and to communal farmers in 1996. … conservation to sustainable utilization of natural resources contributed to the rapid growth of wildlife utilization. The wildlife industry in Namibia is currently the only animal production system that is expanding. …
Chase M 2009. Fixed-wing aerial wildlife census of the Caprivi river systems: A survey of rivers, wetlands and floodplains in September 2009.
… This report presents the results of the third fixed-wing aerial wildlife census of the Caprivi River systems in Namibia conducted during September 2009. The … of this survey is to provide recent information on the distribution, abundance and trend of wildlife species including comparisons between protected areas and conservancies. The report … August 2004. Maps, tables and bar graphs illustrating the distribution, abundance and trend of wildlife species in various land use categories are presented. Wildlife numbers were highest in …
Kansky R, Maassarani T 2022. Teaching nonviolent communication to increase empathy between people and toward wildlife to promote human-wildlife coexistence. Conservation Letters e12862
… Promoting human-wildlife coexistence in complex systems where both relationships between people and toward … to be managed is challenging. We applied nonviolent communication (NVC) training as part of a participatory dialogue program to increase empathic concern toward wildlife and between people … sector, and we believe these results show promise for its wider application as a tool for participatory dialogues to improve collaboration, understanding and resolve conflicts. Keywords: …
Namibian Association of CBNRM Support Organisations (NACSO) 2014. Keep Namibia's wildlife on the land! Understanding the conservation benefits of wildlife use in Namibia.
… management are the main land uses. Conservation outside national parks therefore means giving wildlife a tangible value so that people keep it on the land - rather than eradicating it in favour of livestock or crops. … Keep Namibia's wildlife on the land! Understanding the conservation benefits of wildlife use in Nami... …
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Keep wildlife on the land Final.pdf 1.59 MB
Perche J, Shivute T, Enkono N 2020. Illegal wildlife trade in southern Africa: A state of knowledge report. For the project "Assessing the economic impact of Illegal Wildlife Trade in the SADC region" funded by USAID's VukaNow Activity.
… was undertaken with the aim of understanding what data and information is available on illegal wildlife trade (IWT) that would allow for analyses of economic impacts of IWT at national and … studies and regional assessments of the costs and benefits of IWT in the region. … Illegal wildlife trade in southern Africa: A state of knowledge report. For the project "Assessing the economic impact of Illegal Wildlife Trade in the SADC region" funded by USAID's VukaNow Activity …
Bwabwata National Park - Wildlife wonders: People and wildlife species co-existing.
… garden visitors and neighbours come in larger nd sometimes threatening forms! That people and wildlife can get along so well and in such close proximity is one of triumphs of the Bwabwata National Park. … Bwabwata National Park - Wildlife wonders People and wildlife species co-existing …
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Bwabwata Fact sheet1.pdf 211.47 KB
Melzheimer J 2016. The science before and after the "collaring" of wildlife. Leibniz-Institute for Zoology & Wildlife Research, Germany.
… Presentation giving an overview of the science before and after the "collaring" of wildlife. … The science before and after the "collaring" of wildlife. Leibniz-Institute for Zoology & Wildlife R... …
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The science before and after the collaring of wildlife.pptx 28.21 MB
Benson DE 1998. Wildlife Conservation Strategies in Southern Africa that Empower the People. Human Dimensions of Wildlife (3) 47-58
… When the welfare of people is enhanced by wildlife, then the people cannot afford to live without wildlife. If wildlife is a problem, people will not afford to protect them. Wildlife have been alienated from …
Stander P, Esterhuizen A 2006. Detailed survey on the state of human wildlife conflict in Ehirovipuka and Omatendeka Conservancies.
… Conflict between wildlife and the Namibian people is a significant and welldocumented problem. Human Wildlife Conflict (HWC) is particularly common in the Ehirovipuka and Omatendeka Conservancies, … programmes in Namibia, and the emergence of communal conservancies have contributed to growing wildlife populations. The increased numbers of wildlife, especially in the northwest, has …
Chase M, Schlossberg S, Sutcliffe R, Seonyatseng E 2018. Dry season aerial survey of elephants and wildlife in northern Botswana, July - October 2018.
… This survey was conducted jointly by Elephants Without Borders and the Department of Wildlife and National Parks (Botswana). During the 2018 dry season, a fixed-wing aerial survey of elephants and wildlife was flown over the core conservation areas of northern Botswana as well as surrounding pastoral lands. This aerial survey was commissioned by the Department of Wildlife and National Parks (DWNP) and Elephants Without Borders (EWB). A small fixed-wing plane …
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2018 Botswana Aerial Survey Report_Elephants without borders.pdf 5.04 MB
Holechek J, Valdez R 2018. Wildlife conservation on the rangelands of eastern and southern Africa: Past, present, and future. Rangeland Ecology and Management (71) 245–258
… are renowned for supporting a globally unique diversity and abundance of large mammals. This wildlife legacy is threatened by changing demographics, increased poaching, habitat … but there are reasons for optimism. After sharp declines from 1970 to 1990 across Africa, wildlife populations in some countries have subsequently increased due to incentives involving … National parks and protected areas, which have been critically important in maintaining African wildlife populations, are being increased and better protected. Over the past 50 years, the …
Child BA, Musengezi J, Parent GD, Child GFT 2012. The economics and institutional economics of wildlife on private land in Africa. Pastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice 2 (18)
… In southern Africa, there are now 10,000 to 14,000 private ranchers that promote wildlife enterprises alone or in some in combination with domestic livestock. An important … services. The article describes the historical emergence of a sustainable use approach to wildlife conservation since the Arusha Conference in 1963. It suggests that indigenous … in complex dryland ecosystems and are trumped by economics and political processes. However, wildlife provides the foundation for a bio-experience economy that has a decided comparative …
2009. Re-conceptualization of wildlife conservation: toward resonation between subsistence and wildlife.
… Re-conceptualization of wildlife conservation: toward resonation between subsistence and wildlife
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Re_conceptualization of wildlife conservation.pdf 1.99 MB
2021. How building a network of wildlife crime law enforcement is reducing the illegal wildlife trade.
… frontline to fight to protect nature across five African nations. … How building a network of wildlife crime law enforcement is reducing the illegal wildlife trade …
Barnes J, Lange G-M, Nhuleipo O, Muteyauli P, Katoma T, Amupolo H, Lindeque P, Erb P 2004. Preliminary evaluation of the wildlife stocks in Namibia: Wildlife asset account.
… Preliminary evaluation of the wildlife stocks in Namibia Wildlife asset account …
Khumalo KE, Yung LA 2015. Women, human-wildlife conflict, and CBNRM: Hidden impacts and vulnerabilities in Kwandu Conservancy, Namibia. Conservation and Society (13) 232-243
… designed to ensure that rural residents benefit from conservation initiatives. But where human-wildlife conflict threatens life and livelihood, wildlife impacts can undermine the goals of CBNRM. Based on research on women’s experiences in Namibia's Kwandu Conservancy, we examine both the visible and hidden impacts of human-wildlife conflict. In Kwandu Conservancy, the effects of human-wildlife conflict are ongoing, …
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Hidden Impacts and Vulnerabilities in Kwandu Conservancy.pdf 1009.37 KB
Barnes JI 1998. Wildlife economics: a study of direct use values in Botswana's wildlife sector.
Wildlife economics a study of direct use values in Botswana's wildlife sector …
Koro E 2021. Why rural communities choose wildlife hunting over cattle.
… Anabeb Conservancy residents switched from using their land for cattle production in favour of wildlife trophy hunting. Why did they do this? The benefits that the Anabeb Conservancy's 200 … to completely abandon a centuries-old African culture of using land to support cattle. Today, wildlife roams freely where herds of cattle used to graze. It is a rare cultural transformation brought about by the extraordinary and life-changing wildlife hunting benefits. For Anabeb Conservancy members, wildlife hunting brings more money …
Zulu M 2021. Community wildlife conservation programs should go beyond meetings, self-help projects and poacher arrests.
… natural resources. Use, and vulnerability mainly depends on its social, and economic value. Wildlife, considerably more valuable- has generated a lot of interest as concerned parties try … apply different approaches to ensure that it is protected. It is unfortunate that some of the wildlife species, like animals' numbers that dwindled because human beings always target them as a means of survival or tampered with their habitats. Through researches, these wildlife species have been classified as 'Endangered' or "Rare" for example the Painted Dog, …
Störmer N, Weaver LC, Stuart-Hill G, Diggle RW, Naidoo R 2019. Investigating the effects of community-based conservation on attitudes towards wildlife in Namibia. Biological Conservation (233) 193-200
… Community-based natural resource management programs can recover wildlife and deliver tangible benefits such as financial gains to local communities. Less-tangible impacts like changes in attitudes towards wildlife are not as well-understood, yet in the long-term, positive attitudes may be an … benefits of a community-based conservation program in Namibia and residents' attitudes towards wildlife. We administered a questionnaire with a specific focus on attitudes to >400 community …
Magwedere K, Hemberger MY, Hoffman LC, Dziva F 2012. Zoonoses: a potential obstacle to the growing wildlife industry of Namibia. Infection ecology and epidemiology 2 (1) 18365
… to public health. With an ever-increasing interrelationship between humans, livestock and wildlife species, the threat to human health will rise to unprecedented levels. Wildlife species contribute to the majority of emerging diseases; therefore, there is an urgent need to define control systems of zoonoses of wildlife origin but very little information exists. In this review, we examine prevalent …
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Zoonoses_a potential obstacle to the growing wildlife industry.pdf 1.1 MB
Tensen L 2016. Under what circumstances can wildlife farming benefit species conservation?. Global Ecology and Conservation (6) 286-298
… suggested that commercial breeding can keep the pressure off wild populations, referred to as wildlife farming. During this review, it is argued that wildlife farming can benefit species conservation only if the following criteria are met: (i) … legal products will be more cost-efficient, in order to combat the black market prices; (iv) wildlife farming does not rely on wild populations for re-stocking; (v) laundering of illegal …
Lendelvo S, Nghitevelekwa R, Pinto M 2021. Gendered climate change-induced human-wildlife conflicts amidst COVID-19 in Erongo Region, Namibia. Negotiating Climate Change in Crisis 159-172
… in the conservation sector are already battling the impacts of climate change-induced human-wildlife conflict (HWC), the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has greatly exacerbated the … indicated, Namibia's frequent droughts over the past few years have encouraged the movement of wildlife such as elephant closer to human settlements, searching especially for water and … challenges facing communities, they are being rerouted to address climate change-induced human-wildlife conflict. Recent funding acquired from the Green Climate Fund through the Environmental …
Hill CM 2004. Farmers' Perspectives of Conflict at the Wildlife-Agriculture Boundary: Some Lessons Learned from African Subsistence Farmers. Human Dimensions of Wildlife: An International Journal (9) 279-286
… This article outlines the importance of exploring farmers' perspectives of human–wildlife conflicts because people's perceptions and expectations shape their attitudes and responses to crop raiding by wildlife. A series of factors that influence farmers' perceptions of risk are examined to help explain why perceived risk of crop loss to wildlife is often significantly greater than any actual risk. This is explored in the context of …
Stoldt M, Göttert T, Mann C, Zeller U 2020. Transfrontier Conservation Areas and Human-Wildlife Conflict: The case of the Namibian component of the Kavango-Zambezi (KAZA) TFCA. Scientific Reports 10 7964
… Our study deals with human-wildlife conflicts in the Namibian component of the Kavango-Zambezi Transfrontier Conservation … to assess the impact of human dimensions in the KAZA TFCA. Our results reveal pronounced human-wildlife conflicts with considerable impacts on the livelihoods of communities. Human-wildlife conflict has the potential to become a significant contributor to the failure of the …
Douglas LR, Alie K 2014. High-value natural resources: Linking wildlife conservation to international conflict, insecurity, and development concerns. Biological Conservation 171 270-277
… The relationship between natural resources and conflict is well documented, except for wildlife. We discuss the role that wildlife can play in national and international security interests, including wildlife's role in financing the activities of belligerent groups and catalyzing social …

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