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Rigava N, Taylor R, Goredema L 2006. Participatory wildlife quota setting. Participatory Learning and Action 55: Practical tools for community conservation in southern Africa Theme Section 8 62-69
… (CBNRM). Most of southern Africa's CBNRM programmes depend on the sustainable management of wildlife and trophy hunting. Norman Rigava, Russell Taylor and Lilian Goredema, describe the development of participatory quota setting and its considerable power implications. The right of communities to set and …
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Participatory wildlife quota setting.pdf 188.92 KB
Cooney R, Roe D, Dublin H, Booth AJ 2018. Wild life, wild livelihoods: Involving communities in sustainable wildlife management and combatting the illegal wildlife trade..
… UN Environment Assembly Resolution 2/14 on Illegal trade in wildlife and wildlife products calls for an analysis of international best practice with regard to involving local communities in wildlife management. In response to this resolution, UN Environment has commissioned the …
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WLWL_Report_web.pdf 6.57 MB
Algotsson E 2006. Wildlife conservation through people-centred approaches to natural resource management programmes and the control of wildlife exploitation. Local Environment (11) 79-93
… effect to its varied obligations. Inconsistency and incompleteness of regulations governing wildlife conservation in conjunction with the failure to implement objectives to conserve wildlife through restricted exploitation with the political, social and economic motives of … It is suggested that where communities are expected to take part in the management of wildlife resources, the responsibility for sustainable wildlife management must be linked to the …
Keeping D, Kashe N, Langwane H, Sebati P, Molese N, Gielen M-C, Keitsile-Barungwi A, Khukwe O, Brahman N 2019. Botswana's wildlife losing ground as Kalahari Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs) are dezoned for livestock expansion.
… to elephants and KAZA, discussion about the official dezoning of 8,268 km2 of free-ranging wildlife estate in the Kalahari ecosystem has been notably absent. Using track-based methods we quantified wildlife populations inhabiting this relinquished wilderness now awaiting imminent conversion to … which will become consumed, displaced or potential conflict animals. Erstwhile publicly-owned wildlife particularly important for local communities will effectively become de facto private …
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Botswanas wildlife losing ground.pdf 187.51 KB
Paterson B, Stuart-Hill G, Underhill LG, Dunne TT, Schinzel B, Brown C, Beytell B, Demas F, Lindeque P, Tagg J, Weaver C 2008. A fuzzy decision support tool for wildlife translocations into communal conservancies in Namibia. Environmental Modelling and Software 23 (5) 521-534
… A fuzzy logic knowledge based decision support system, Wildlife Introduction Advisor, was developed using NetWeaver to standardise the decision making process of selecting communal conservancies for wildlife translocation in Namibia. Wildlife translocations are a valuable conservation tool with benefits for both local …
Hachileka E 2003. Sustainability of wildlife utilisation in the Chobe District, Botswana. South African Geographical Journal (85) 50-57
… the influence of policies on the ecological, economic and sociological sustainability of wildlife utilisation using a case study of Chobe District in northern Botswana. The paper … assesses how some international conventions influence the conservation and utilisation of wildlife resources in Botswana. The approach used in the study was essentially a literature … information and clarify an contradictory issues found in the literature. The study found that wildlife management in Botswana is regulated and guided by the Wildlife Conservation and …
Government Gazette of the Republic of Namibia 2011. Government Notices, No. 144: Regulations relating to controlled wildlife products and trade: Controlled Wildlife Products and Trade  Act.
… No. 4773, 15 August 2011. Government Notices, No. 144: Regulations relating to controlled wildlife products and trade: Controlled Wildlife Products and Trade  Act, 2008. In these regulations a word or expressions defined in … has that meaning and, unless the context otherwise indicates - "the Act" means the Controlled Wildlife Products and Trade Act, 2008 (Act No. 9 of 2008). … Government Notices, No. 144: …
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Regulations relating to controlled wildlife products and trade.pdf 542.11 KB
Barnes JI, Schier C, van Rooy G 1997. Tourists' willingness to pay for wildlife viewing and wildlife conservation in Namibia.
… the economy of Namibia.. Some 13% of the country is set aside as parks for nature conservation. Wildlife stocks and scenic attributes are considerable, within these protected areas and outside … of this study was to derive quantitative data on the willingness of tourists to pay for wildlife viewing trips, park entry fees and the willingness to support wildlife conservation and community-based tourism initiatives and how these data could be used …
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Research Discussion Paper 15_1997.pdf 133.11 KB
Gaillard JC, van Niekerk D, Shoroma LB, Coetzee C, Amirapu T Wildlife hazards and disaster risk reduction. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction (33) 55-63
… This article makes a case for including wildlife and human-wildlife conflicts in both research on disasters and policies geared towards reducing the risk of disasters. It builds upon a scoping study conducted in Namibia to emphasise that wildlife hazards affect all dimensions of people's livelihoods, including physical, economic, …
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Wildlife hazards and disaster risk reduction.pdf 757.16 KB
Barnes JI 2001. Economic returns and allocation of resources in the wildlife sector of Botswana. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 31 (3-4) 141-153
Wildlife utilisation in Botswana was studied to find out (1) whether it generates positive … land uses were combined in linear programming and cost-benefit analyses. Results show that the wildlife resource in Botswana can contribute positively to national income, and this justifies … The sector is economically efficient, and contributes to Botswana's economic development. Wildlife uses need to be fully developed in ways that maximise their economic contributions. …
Novelli M, Humavindu MN 2005. Chapter 14 – Wildlife tourism: Wildlife use vs local gain: trophy hunting in Namibia. Niche Tourism - Contemporary issues, trends and cases 171-182
… Chapter 14 - Wildlife tourism: Wildlife use vs local gain: trophy hunting in Namibia. … Niche Tourism - Contemporary issues, trends and cases … Chapter 14 – Wildlife tourism Wildlife use vs local gain trophy hunting in Namibia …
Muema D, Amukwa J 2019. Centre stage in wildlife conservation: Combatting wildlife crime in Zambezi Region – Namibia.
Wildlife crime is at the top of the international conservation agenda. In Namibia, a total of 86 communal conservancies manage wildlife outside of 12 national parks and rural Namibians earn income from tourism, related to high value species such as elephants and rhinos. … Centre stage in wildlife conservation: Combatting wildlife crime in Zambezi Region – Namibia …
Ashley C, Barnes J 1996. Wildlife Use for Economic Gain - the potential for wildlife to contribute to development in Namibia.
… and Tourism in 1993. One objective of the programme is ongoing research on the values of wildlife, and how to increase and realise these values. Several research findings have already … Papers. This paper seeks to consolidate findings to date on the question of values of wildlife utilisation. It therefore draws heavily on previous papers, while adding new information and analysis. … Wildlife Use for Economic Gain - the potential for wildlife to contribute to development in …
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Research Discussion Paper 12_1996.pdf 1.59 MB
Smit E 2019. 16 arrested for wildlife crimes: Protected wildlife species continue to be illegally hunted in northern Namibia.
… Sixteen suspects were arrested in connection with wildlife crimes in the past week. Eight of the suspects are Namibians and the rest … the Intelligence and Investigation Unit of the environment ministry indicate that a total of 21 wildlife products were seized last week. … 16 arrested for wildlife crimes: Protected wildlife species continue to be illegally hunted in northern Namibia …
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NAM_2019-10_16 arrested for wildlife crime_Namibian Sun.pdf 114.31 KB
Mbaiwa JE 2005. Wildlife resource utilisation at Moremi Game Reserve and Khwai community area in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Journal of Environmental Management 77 (2) 144-156
… This paper uses the concept of sustainable development to examine the utilisation of wildlife resources at Moremi Game Reserve (MGR) and Khwai community area (NG 18/19) in the … and gathering economy; marked the beginning of resource conflicts between Khwai residents and wildlife managers; and, led to the development of negative attitudes of Khwai residents towards wildlife conservation. Since the late 1980s, a predominately foreign owned tourism industry …
Weise FJ, Wessels Q, Munro S, Solberg M 2014. Using artificial passageways to facilitate the movement of wildlife on Namibian farmland. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 44 (2) 161-166
Wildlife-proof fencing is increasing in extent as a result of the growing wildlife industry on private lands in southern Africa. In environments where such fences hinder the movements of free-ranging wildlife, the provision of artificial passageways can restore connectivity for some species. We …
Laverty TM, Teel TL, Thomas REW, Gawusab AA, Berger J 2019. Using pastoral ideology to understand human–wildlife coexistence in arid agricultural landscapes. Conservation Science and Practice 1 (5)
… knowledge is requisite for solutions to global conservation problems, including human–wildlife conflict, but gathering sufficient data to facilitate integration has proved difficult. … to these challenges, we drew upon psychological theory and long‐term ecological data on wildlife populations and conflict occurrence to inform qualitative research on pastoralists' values toward wildlife in the northern Namib Desert. We explored how values and ecological conditions shaped …
Kay CE 2009. Kenya's wildlife debacle: The true cost of banning hunting. Mule Deer Foundation Magazine (27) 22-27
… the United States and abroad, would like to ban hunting in the belief such a move would benefit wildlife, or at least that is what they claim when soliciting funds. It sounds simple, stop hunting animals and you will have more wildlife. Is this, though, a reasonable supposition? For an answer we need to look at the wildlife situation in Kenya for that African country banned all, and I do mean all, hunting in …
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Kenyas wildlife debacle.pdf 2.48 MB
van Schalkwyk DL, McMillin KW, Witthuhn RC, Hoffman LC 1991. The contribution of wildlife to sustainable natural resource utilization in Namibia: A Review. Sustainabilit (2) 3479-3499
… obtained ownership rights over land and livestock since the early 1900s; commercial rights over wildlife and plants were given to freehold farmers in 1967 and to communal farmers in 1996. … conservation to sustainable utilization of natural resources contributed to the rapid growth of wildlife utilization. The wildlife industry in Namibia is currently the only animal production system that is expanding. …
Benson DE 1998. Wildlife Conservation Strategies in Southern Africa that Empower the People. Human Dimensions of Wildlife (3) 47-58
… When the welfare of people is enhanced by wildlife, then the people cannot afford to live without wildlife. If wildlife is a problem, people will not afford to protect them. Wildlife have been alienated from …
Bwabwata National Park - Wildlife wonders: People and wildlife species co-existing.
… garden visitors and neighbours come in larger nd sometimes threatening forms! That people and wildlife can get along so well and in such close proximity is one of triumphs of the Bwabwata National Park. … Bwabwata National Park - Wildlife wonders People and wildlife species co-existing …
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Bwabwata Fact sheet1.pdf 211.47 KB
Namibian Association of CBNRM Support Organisations (NACSO) 2014. Keep Namibia's wildlife on the land! Understanding the conservation benefits of wildlife use in Namibia.
… management are the main land uses. Conservation outside national parks therefore means giving wildlife a tangible value so that people keep it on the land - rather than eradicating it in favour of livestock or crops. … Keep Namibia's wildlife on the land! Understanding the conservation benefits of wildlife use in Nami... …
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Keep wildlife on the land Final.pdf 1.59 MB
Melzheimer J 2016. The science before and after the "collaring" of wildlife. Leibniz-Institute for Zoology & Wildlife Research, Germany.
… Presentation giving an overview of the science before and after the "collaring" of wildlife. … The science before and after the "collaring" of wildlife. Leibniz-Institute for Zoology & Wildlife R... …
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The science before and after the collaring of wildlife.pptx 28.21 MB
Chase M, Schlossberg S, Sutcliffe R, Seonyatseng E 2018. Dry season aerial survey of elephants and wildlife in northern Botswana, July - October 2018.
… This survey was conducted jointly by Elephants Without Borders and the Department of Wildlife and National Parks (Botswana). During the 2018 dry season, a fixed-wing aerial survey of elephants and wildlife was flown over the core conservation areas of northern Botswana as well as surrounding pastoral lands. This aerial survey was commissioned by the Department of Wildlife and National Parks (DWNP) and Elephants Without Borders (EWB). A small fixed-wing plane …
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2018 Botswana Aerial Survey Report_Elephants without borders.pdf 5.04 MB
Holechek J, Valdez R 2018. Wildlife conservation on the rangelands of eastern and southern Africa: Past, present, and future. Rangeland Ecology and Management (71) 245–258
… are renowned for supporting a globally unique diversity and abundance of large mammals. This wildlife legacy is threatened by changing demographics, increased poaching, habitat … but there are reasons for optimism. After sharp declines from 1970 to 1990 across Africa, wildlife populations in some countries have subsequently increased due to incentives involving … National parks and protected areas, which have been critically important in maintaining African wildlife populations, are being increased and better protected. Over the past 50 years, the …
Child BA, Musengezi J, Parent GD, Child GFT 2012. The economics and institutional economics of wildlife on private land in Africa. Pastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice 2 (18)
… In southern Africa, there are now 10,000 to 14,000 private ranchers that promote wildlife enterprises alone or in some in combination with domestic livestock. An important … services. The article describes the historical emergence of a sustainable use approach to wildlife conservation since the Arusha Conference in 1963. It suggests that indigenous … in complex dryland ecosystems and are trumped by economics and political processes. However, wildlife provides the foundation for a bio-experience economy that has a decided comparative …
2009. Re-conceptualization of wildlife conservation: toward resonation between subsistence and wildlife.
… Re-conceptualization of wildlife conservation: toward resonation between subsistence and wildlife
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Re_conceptualization of wildlife conservation.pdf 1.99 MB
Barnes JI 1998. Wildlife economics: a study of direct use values in Botswana's wildlife sector.
Wildlife economics a study of direct use values in Botswana's wildlife sector …
Khumalo KE, Yung LA 2015. Women, human-wildlife conflict, and CBNRM: Hidden impacts and vulnerabilities in Kwandu Conservancy, Namibia. Conservation and Society (13) 232-243
… designed to ensure that rural residents benefit from conservation initiatives. But where human-wildlife conflict threatens life and livelihood, wildlife impacts can undermine the goals of CBNRM. Based on research on women’s experiences in Namibia's Kwandu Conservancy, we examine both the visible and hidden impacts of human-wildlife conflict. In Kwandu Conservancy, the effects of human-wildlife conflict are ongoing, …
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Hidden Impacts and Vulnerabilities in Kwandu Conservancy.pdf 1009.37 KB
Barnes J, Lange G-M, Nhuleipo O, Muteyauli P, Katoma T, Amupolo H, Lindeque P, Erb P 2004. Preliminary evaluation of the wildlife stocks in Namibia: Wildlife asset account.
… Preliminary evaluation of the wildlife stocks in Namibia Wildlife asset account …
Störmer N, Weaver LC, Stuart-Hill G, Diggle RW, Naidoo R 2019. Investigating the effects of community-based conservation on attitudes towards wildlife in Namibia. Biological Conservation (233) 193-200
… Community-based natural resource management programs can recover wildlife and deliver tangible benefits such as financial gains to local communities. Less-tangible impacts like changes in attitudes towards wildlife are not as well-understood, yet in the long-term, positive attitudes may be an … benefits of a community-based conservation program in Namibia and residents' attitudes towards wildlife. We administered a questionnaire with a specific focus on attitudes to >400 community …
Magwedere K, Hemberger MY, Hoffman LC, Dziva F 2012. Zoonoses: a potential obstacle to the growing wildlife industry of Namibia. Infection ecology and epidemiology 2 (1) 18365
… to public health. With an ever-increasing interrelationship between humans, livestock and wildlife species, the threat to human health will rise to unprecedented levels. Wildlife species contribute to the majority of emerging diseases; therefore, there is an urgent need to define control systems of zoonoses of wildlife origin but very little information exists. In this review, we examine prevalent …
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Zoonoses_a potential obstacle to the growing wildlife industry.pdf 1.1 MB
Tensen L 2016. Under what circumstances can wildlife farming benefit species conservation?. Global Ecology and Conservation (6) 286-298
… suggested that commercial breeding can keep the pressure off wild populations, referred to as wildlife farming. During this review, it is argued that wildlife farming can benefit species conservation only if the following criteria are met: (i) … legal products will be more cost-efficient, in order to combat the black market prices; (iv) wildlife farming does not rely on wild populations for re-stocking; (v) laundering of illegal …
Douglas LR, Alie K 2014. High-value natural resources: Linking wildlife conservation to international conflict, insecurity, and development concerns. Biological Conservation 171 270-277
… The relationship between natural resources and conflict is well documented, except for wildlife. We discuss the role that wildlife can play in national and international security interests, including wildlife's role in financing the activities of belligerent groups and catalyzing social …
Hill CM 2004. Farmers' Perspectives of Conflict at the Wildlife-Agriculture Boundary: Some Lessons Learned from African Subsistence Farmers. Human Dimensions of Wildlife: An International Journal (9) 279-286
… This article outlines the importance of exploring farmers' perspectives of human–wildlife conflicts because people's perceptions and expectations shape their attitudes and responses to crop raiding by wildlife. A series of factors that influence farmers' perceptions of risk are examined to help explain why perceived risk of crop loss to wildlife is often significantly greater than any actual risk. This is explored in the context of …
Taylor WA, Lindsey PA, Davies-Mostert H 2015. An assessment of the economic, social and conservation value of the wildlife ranching industry and its potential to support the green economy in South Africa..
… In the 1960s wildlife ranching was a very small part of the agricultural sector, with a handful of landowners using wildlife commercially. The realisation in the 1970s and 1980s that the sustainable use of wildlife could be financially viable, followed by the Game Theft Act of 1991, which provided …
Blackmore AC 2017. Public trust doctrine, research and responsible wildlife management in South Africa. Bothalia 47 (1) a2217
… A significant proportion of South African biodiversity occurs in extensive private wildlife areas. As such, the continuance of these private reserves is paramount to conservation … and impacts of this industry on, inter alia, integrity and conservation of the country's wildlife, and the landscapes these facilities are located in, as well as the country's … the country's environmental law and the roles played by government as the regulator, the wildlife industry, research and the public in achieving responsible wildlife management and the …
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PTD_Responsible Wildlife Management.pdf 2.76 MB
Spierenburg M, Brooks S 2014. Private game farming and its social consequences in post-apartheid South Africa: contestations over wildlife, property and agrarian futures. Journal of Contemporary African Studies (32) 151-172
… Spaces of privatised wildlife production, in the form of game farms, private nature reserves and other forms of wildlife-oriented land use, are an increasingly prominent feature of the South African … literature on the social impacts of state-run protected areas, the outcomes of privatised wildlife production have thus far received little attention. It is argued here that the …
Jones N 2001. The evolution of a community-based approach to wildlife management at Kunene, Namibia.
… in Namibia's Kunene Region illuminates a number of key issues relevant to approaches which view wildlife as a sustainable natural resource. This paper examines 5 key issues in detail: the … influencing the development of viable common property resource management institutions for wildlife and tourism; the importance of external facilitation based on 'light-touch' adaptive … a number of innovative and positive responses to the challenges posed by community-based wildlife conservation on communal land. Keywords: case studies, common property resources, …
Bega S 2020. Wildlife trafficking soars as illegal dealers use unchecked hubs in southern Africa.
… from a regional Indonesian airport to Jakarta before flying to China. The greatest variation in wildlife trafficking in air transport doesn’t necessarily occur between regions but between the species or wildlife products trafficked, the specific methods used with the routes taken by wildlife traffickers heavily dependent on wildlife type, says the Runway to Extinction report: …
Hauptfleisch M 2009. Impact Assessment (IA) to solve Aircraft-Wildlife Collisions. Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of the International Association for Impact Assessment 16-22
… Accidents involving aircraft and wildlife (especially birds) have been a problem since the earliest days of manned flight and are … viewed as serious hazards in modern civil and military aviation. Over 90% of collisions with wildlife occur on take-off, landing, climb or final approach as these are relatively low … Key habitat factors in and around the airports are assessed for their risk of causing aircraft-wildlife collisions. To reduce such risks management actions are implemented which leads to …
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Impact Assessment to solve Aircraft_Wildlife Collisions.pdf 133.32 KB
Baker JE 1997. Trophy Hunting as a Sustainable Use of Wildlife Resources in Southern and Eastern Africa. Journal of Sustainable Tourism (5) 306-321
… Preserving wildlife in a pristine state on a large scale is no longer feasible in view of continued human … fragmentation and degradation, the introduction of nonnative species, and commercialisation of wildlife products. The wise use of the planet's remaining wildlife resources will depend on management practices which recognise that indigenous people …
Bekker JL, Hoffman LC, Jooste PJ 2012. Wildlife-associated zoonotic diseases in some southern African countries in relation to game meat safety: A review. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 79 (1)
… With on-going changes in land use practices from conventional livestock farming to commercial, wildlife-based activities, the interface or interaction between livestock and wildlife is increasing. As part of the wildlife-based activities of ecotourism, breeding and hunting, game farmers are also exploring …
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Wildlife_associated zoonotic diseases.pdf 660.26 KB
Wildlife Credits - an incentive to conserve. Annals of the Natal Museum
… Africa's wildlife is a unique global asset but it is increasingly under threat. Loss of habitat, conflict … the survival of rare and endangered species, including elephants, lions and rhinos. To conserve wildlife for future generations, we need inspired ideas and urgent action. Wildlif Credits is an innovative approach which rewards communities for protecting wildlife and creates opportunities for smart conservation where wildlife thrives and people …
Enzerink RJA 2017. Co-existing with wildlife in Namibia's conservancies: A case study on the relationship between human-wildlife conflict and attitudes of local communities and the influence of Community-based Natural Resource Management on this relationship.
… One of the greatest threats to African nature conservation are conflicts between humans and wildlife. Human-wildlife conflict (HWC) occurs when people and wildlife are competing for (natural) resources and/or living space. The attitudes of local …
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Co_existing with wildlife in Namibias conservancies.pdf 3.15 MB
Mbaiwa JE 2017. Effects of the safari hunting tourism ban on rural livelihoods and wildlife conservation in Northern Botswana. South African Geographical Journal (100) 41-61
… This paper examines the effects of the safari hunting ban of 2014 on rural livelihoods and wildlife conservation in Northern Botswana using the social exchange theory. The paper used both … tourism benefits have led to the development of negative attitudes by rural residents towards wildlife conservation and the increase in incidents of poaching in Northern Botswana. The … and rural livelihoods need to be informed by socio-economic and ecological research. This participatory and scientific approach to decision-making has the potential to contribute …
Palmer AR, Peel M, Kerley G Arid and semiarid rangeland production systems of Southern Africa: Wildlife. Article Scientifique 17 (01-Feb) 362-370
… of secondary herbivore biomass as a function of rainfall. We examined trends within the wildlife industry, including changes in the area of land under both state and private management, wildlife numbers, auction prices and hunting statistics. As a result of the availability of wild … herbivores from formal conservation areas, there has been a dramatic increase in the biomass of wildlife on private conservation land. Rain use efficiencies for both formal and private …
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Arid and semiarid rangeland production systems of Southern Africa.pdf 244.64 KB
2018. Toolkit to fight wildlife crime.
… A new project was launched last week that will assist Namibia in its efforts to fight wildlife crime. The International Consortium on Combatting Wildlife Crime (ICCWC) Wildlife and Forest Crime Analytic Toolkit was launched by environment minister Pohamba Shifeta …
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NAM_2018-12_Toolkit to fight wildlife crime_Namibian Sun.pdf 111.66 KB
Hübschle A, Shearing C 2018. Ending wildlife trafficking - Local communities as change agents.
… conservation NGOs and governments have disbursed millions of dollars to fight this illegal wildlife trade, and continue to do so.We argue in this report that these measures are bound to … aims to provide a better understanding of why African rural communities participate in wildlife economies, both legal and illegal, and how alternative, community-oriented strategies can help build a more resilient response to organized wildlife crime than has hitherto been achieved.This report explores the challenges of illegal …
Parris R, Child G 1979. The importance of pans to wildlife in the Kalahari and the effect of human settlement on these areas. South African Journal of Wildlife Research (3) 1-8
… A cross-section of Kalahari pans was studied to determine wildlife use and the effect of human settlement on these areas. The pans without settlement are shown to be important to many wildlife species including the valuable large antelope - blue wildebeest, red hartebeest, gemsbok and springbok. Human settlement has led to a disappearance of most wildlife species, a reduction in perennial grass cover, and an increase in shrubs. It is …

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