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Hüncke A, Koot S 2012. The presentation of Bushmen in cultural tourism: tourists' images of Bushmen and the tourism provider's presentation of (Hai//om) Bushmen at Treesleeper Camp, Namibia. Critical Arts (26) 671-689
… This article examines images of Bushmen in Namibian cultural tourism from two angles: that of the tourists and that of the community-based … Treesleeper Camp, it will be shown that in host–guest encounters, tourists’ images of (Hai//om) Bushmen interrelate with the images presented by the local hosts, and that tourists’ perceptions …
Cirrus Capital 2021. Electricity generation utilising encroacher bush: Assessment of micro- and macroeconomic benefits of a 40-Megawatt Encroacher Bush Biomass Power Station near Tsumeb in Namibia. A policy brief for NamPower funded by the GIZ Bush Control and Biomass Utilisation Project. (August 2021)
… In June 2013, NamPower finalised a pre-feasibility study for a biomass power station. The pre-feasibility … In 2018, a micro- and macro-economic impact assessment of a proposed 20MWe encroacher bush biomass power station was completed. More recently, in December 2019 a greenhouse gas assessment of biomass utilisation in Namibia included a proposed 20MWe encroacher bush biomass power station and in October 2020 an …
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Electricity generation utilising encroacher bush_2021.pdf 956.49 KB
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) 2016. Financing bush control: An overview of current and proposed financing programmes for bush harvesting and value addition.
Namibia is affected by bush encroachment on a massive scale.The phenomenon currently affects some 26 to 30 million hectares of farmland in 9 of the country's 14 regions. That amounts to roughly 30 per cent of Namibia’s land area. Bush encroachment has lowered the livestock capacity of rangeland by up to two thirds. It …
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GIZ_deBushing_Financing Bush Control 2016.pdf 1.59 MB
de Wet MJ 2015. Harvesting of encroacher bush: Compendium of harvesting technologies for encroacher bush in Namibia.
Bush encroachment is severely hampering the red meat industry of Namibia and it is also negatively affecting biodiversity and the recharging tempos of certain … could economically produce clean and chipped biomass yielding from a few tonnes per day up to 100 and more tonnes per day from a single "harvesting train" of equipment. … Harvesting of …
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de Wet - Harvesting Technologies for Encroacher Bush 2016.pdf 5.5 MB
2021. APP-002863: Renewal of an Environmental Clearance Certificate for bush harvesting to control bush encroachment.
… The Cheetah Conservation Fund (CCF) a section 21 company engaged in education, research, and Conservation activities wishes to register the CCF Bush PTY LTD, a company owned by the Cheetah Conservation Fund. CCF Bush PTY LTD will source … create suitable habitat for the cheetah and prey and improve the overall economy on the Namibian commercial farms. A detailed EMP, maps and supporting documents for this application …
Zimmermann I, Nghikembua M, Shipingana D, Aron T, Groves D, Marker L 2017. The influence of two levels of debushing in Namibia's Thornbush Savanna on overall soil fertility, measured through bioassays. Namibian Journal of Environment 1 (A) 52-59
… services such as effective cycling of water and nutrients. After rangeland has degraded, bushes may encroach in nature's attempt to restore water and nutrient cycling. When bush … debushing activities on different parts of farms of the Cheetah Conservation Fund in central Namibia provided the opportunity to assess the influence of debushing on overall fertility of … totally cleared land. The debushing had taken place at different times, varying between two and 13 years previously. Soil was collected from each of these 27 sites and subjected to bioassay by …
Bush Information System: A modern decision support tool to tackle bush encroachment in Namibia.
Bush encroachment in Namibia reduces agricultural productivity and has negative effects on ecosystem services. At the same time, bush biomass can offer a huge economic opportunity. The Bush Information System (BIS) maps and quantifies bush encroachment and woody biomass potential across Namibia. The system is an open source available online. Exploring potential yield …
Development Consultants for Southern Africa (DECOSA) 2015. Adding Value to Namibian Encroacher Bush - Turning the Challenge of Bush Encroachment into an Opportunity.
Bush encroachment negatively affects a large number of farmers across Namibia. Bush control efforts in form of labour-based or mechanical bush thinning are cost intensive. The …
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Adding Value to Namibian Encroacher Bush_2015.pdf 2.95 MB
SLR Environmental Consulting (Namibia) 2020. APP-001501: Encroacher Bush Biomass Power Project in Namibia - fuel supply activities, including the harvesting, processing and logistics of encroacher bush or wood chips.
… Encroacher Bush Biomass Power Project: Related fuel supply activities, including the harvesting, processing … The Scoping phase of the EIA has been completed. The Scoping Report was accepted by MET on 21 May 2018. Also, two separate applications for ECCs were submitted to the two relevant … document for further information. … APP-001501: Encroacher Bush Biomass Power Project in Namibia - fuel supply activities, including the harvesting, processing and logistics of …
Quantifying Harvestable Encroacher Bush - Determining the Balance between Environmental Sustainability and Economic Feasibility of Bush Utilisation in Namibia.
… This brochure presents a methodology for the quantification of Namibian encroacher bush and proposes a practical solution for balancing environmental … the economic feasibility of biomass utilisation projects. … Quantifying Harvestable Encroacher Bush - Determining the Balance between Environmental Sustainability and Economic Feasibility of …
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Quantifying Harvestable Encroacher Bush.pdf 2.1 MB
Buyer JS, Schmidt-Küntzel A, Nghikembua M, Maul JE, Marker LL 2016. Soil microbial communities following bush removal in a Namibian savanna. SOIL 2 101-110
… Savanna ecosystems are subject to desertification and bush encroachment, which reduce the carrying capacity for wildlife and livestock. Bush thinning is a management approach that can, at least temporarily, restore grasslands and … of the land. In this study we examined the soil microbial communities under bush and grass in Namibia. We analyzed the soil through a chronosequence where bush was thinned at 9, 5, or 3 …
Moleele NM, Ringrose S, Matheson W, Vanderpost C 2002. More woody plants? the status of bush encroachment in Botswana's grazing areas. Journal of Environmental Management 64 (1) 3-11
… have resulted in vegetation changes in the cattle-dominated grazing areas of Botswana. Bush encroachment species—for instance Acacia tortilis, A. erubescens, A. mellifera, … grass cover. A number of factors have the effect of encouraging the germination and survival of bush encroachment species. The practice of cattle husbandry and continual shifting of foci … km2(6.4% of Botswana) of darkened and near infrared (NIR) reflective bush encroached areas in 1994. This paper suggests that specific management strategies should be adopted to help overcome …
Honsbein D, Shiningavamwe KL, Iikela J, de la Puerta Fernandez ML 2018. Encroacher bush to animal feed - viability of bush based feed production in Namibia.
…   … Encroacher bush to animal feed - viability of bush based feed production in Namibia
de Klerk NJ 2004. Bush encroachment in Namibia. Report on Phase 1 of the Bush Encroachment Research, Monitoring and Management Project.
… Desertification has been identified as a major threat for the Namibian population as a whole and has led to the establishment of the National Programme to … poverty. External inputs are, therefore, of crucial importance to break this vicious cycle. … Bush encroachment in Namibia. Report on Phase 1 of the Bush Encroachment Research, Monitoring and Ma... …
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Bush Encoachment in Namibia_deKlerk2004_1.pdf 3.02 MB
Environmental Compliance Consultancy (ECC) 2021. APP-002135: Bush control activities on farm Gemsbokoord No. 477 Outjo district, Kunene region, Namibia.
Bush control activities on farm Gemsbokoord No. 477 Outjo district, Kunene region, Namibia listed activities triggered by the project include: Forestry activities 4. The clearance … or any other related activity that requires authorization in terms of the Forest Act, 2001 (Act No.12 of 2001) or any other law. The farmer intends to clear approximately 3000 to 4000 …
Stolter C, Joubert D, Schwarz K, Finckh M 2018. Impact of bush encroachment management on plant response and animal distribution. Climate change and adaptive land management in southern Africa - assessments, changes, challenges, and solutions 219-225
… The transformation of grassland by bush encroachment causes socioeconomic problems in arid and semi-arid regions. At the moment, de-bushing is the only way to control bush encroachment. In this context, we conducted two independent projects within SASSCAL. First, …
Environmental Compliance Consultancy (ECC) 2021. APP-002825: Bush thinning and charcoal production for the registered Jumbo Charcoal Group Scheme Members.
… Renewal application for an Environmental Clearance Certificate for the existing bush thinning and charcoal production for the registered Jumbo Charcoal Group Scheme Members in Namibia. As the environmental clearance application is for a Group Scheme whose members are … closing or being sold. The current FSC registered Group Scheme Members can be seen in Figure 1. Listed Activities triggered by the project include: Listed activity EIA screening finding …
Lindsey PA, Balme G, Becker M, Begg C, Bento C, Bocchino C, Dickman A, Diggle RW, Eves H, Henschel P, Lewis D, Marnewick K, Mattheus J, McNutt JW, McRobb R, Midlane N, Milanzi J, Morley R, Murphree M, Opyene V, Phadima J, Purchase G, Rentsch D, Roche C, Shaw J, van der Westhuizen H, Van Vliet N, Zisadza-Gandiwa P 2013. The bushmeat trade in African savannas: Impacts, drivers, and possible solutions. Biological Conservation 160 80-96
… The bushmeat trade, or the illegal acquisition and exchange of wild meat, has long been recognised … forest biomes, but receives little attention in savannas, perhaps due to a misconception that bushmeat hunting is a low-impact subsistence activity. Though data on impacts are scarce, indications are that bushmeat hunting is a widespread problem in savannas, with severe impacts on wildlife …
UNIQUE Forestry 2020. Greenhouse Gas Assessment of Bush Control and Biomass Utilisation (BCBU) in Namibia.
Bush vegetation currently covers more than half of Namibia’s land area. Woody encroachment into grasslands has significant negative impacts on agricultural production, ecosystem services and biodiversity. At the same time, bush biomass plays an important role for Namibia’s reported status as a net carbon sink. Most …
Potgieter GC 2019. Beating back the bush - Recent insights into improving Namibian rangeland productivity and biodiversity. (2019)
… and Otjiwarongo, you will have noticed that much of the landscape around you is dominated by bush. Visitors to Namibia driving this route will be struck by how few people and buildings they encounter. The … today. A bush, as opposed to a tree, is defined as a woody plant that rarely grows taller than 10 feet, and usually has multiple stems rather than one long trunk. The thorny bush species like …
Joubert DF 2014. The Dynamics of Bush Thickening by Acacia mellifera in the Highland Savanna of Namibia.
… The dynamics of bush thickening by Acacia mellifera in the arid Namibian Highland Savanna was investigated. First, a conceptual state-and-transition model was … to a bush thickened state. Fire returns the vegetation to a grassy state by causing an almost 100 % mortality of seedlings. If fire is absent through a lack of fuel (overgrazing) or fire is …
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Dynamics of Bush Thickening by Acacia Mellifera.pdf 3.13 MB
Namibia Nature Foundation (NNF) 2016. Assessment of the macroeconomic benefits of de-bushing in Namibia.
… Does de-bushing pay off for Namibia? This question can be discussed on the basis of a detailed assessment of the costs of bush control and potential benefits. Bush encroachment has negative impacts on some of Namibia's …
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GIZ-Policy Brief on Bush thinning benefits 2016.pdf 323.51 KB
Feller S, Mahony J, Sazanowicz R, Wise J 2006. Development of the Bushblok Industry in Namibia. An Interactive Qualifying Project Report.
Bush encroachment is a cause of desertification in Namibia and contributes to the decline of the cheetah's habitat. In an effort to combat bush encroachment and habitat loss, the Cheetah Conservation Fund's subsidiary company CCF Bush
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Development of the Bushblok Industry in Namibia_2006.pdf 2.24 MB
Ministry of Agriculture Water and Forestry (MAWF), Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) Value addition to encroacher bush wood in Namibia.
… Most rangelands in Namibia’s farming areas are severely bush encroached and suffer from drastically reduced grazing capacity, groundwater recharge and soil moisture content. Encroacher bush has to be thinned to recover the productivity of the land, but this is an expensive …
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Value addition to encroacher bush wood in Namibia_Poster.pdf 855.08 KB
Garland E, Gordon RJ 1999. The Authentic (In)Authentic: Bushman Anthro‐Tourism. Visual Anthropology (12) 267-287
… Focusing on tourism ventures that market contact with so‐called bushmen, this paper examines some of the current dynamics and consequences of cultural tourism in Namibia, where the Government has instituted a series of progressive policies to promote local … primitive cultural otherness continue to feature centrally in tourist demand for contact with “bushmen,” the community‐based and collaborative tourism’ ventures currently being developed in …
Lukomska N, Quaas MF, Baumgärtner S 2010. Bush encroachment control and risk management in semi-arid rangelands.
… We study the role of bush encroachment control for a farmer's income and income risk in a stochastic … model of grazing management in semiarid rangelands. In particular, we study debushing as an instrument of risk management that complements the choice of an adaptive grazing management strategy for that sake. We show that debushing, while being a good practice for increasing the mean pasture productivity and thus …
Namibia Nature Foundation (NNF) 2016. An assessment of the economics of land degradation related to bush encroachment in Namibia.
Bush encroachment has increased significantly in Namibia over past decades, largely as a result of habitat change. It affects an estimated 26 to … although this figure is currently under review. Overgrazing is thought to be a key driver of bush encroachment, but the displacement of browsers by livestock, the suppression of high …
Schröter M, Jakoby O, Olbrich R, Eichhorn M, Baumgärtner S 2009. Remote sensing of bush encroachment on commercial cattle farms in semi-arid rangelands in Namibia.
Bush encroachment is one of the most extensive changes in land cover in Namibia and an urgent problem for cattle farming, rapidly reducing the productivity of the … rangeland. Despite the severity of these consequences, a complete and accurate assessment of bush encroached areas is still missing at large. This study aims at assessing bush encroachment …
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Schroter_2009 - remote sense bush encroach.pdf 988.07 KB
2018. Impacts of bush encroachment on groundwater recharge: Evidence from 9 years of soil hydrological monitoring in the Namibian thornbush Savanna.
… The analysis of the impact of bush encroachment on groundwater recharge, based on a 9 years soil water data history in central Namibia, suggests that severe bush encroachment reduces the probability of groundwater recharge to approximately one third in …
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Impacts of bush encroachment on groundwater recharge.pdf 291.74 KB
Belayneh A, Tessema ZK 2017. Mechanisms of bush encroachment and its inter-connection with rangeland degradation in semi-arid African ecosystems: a review. Journal of Arid Land 9 299–312
… rangelands throughout the world have been rapidly converted from a grassland state to a bush encroachment state during the past 50 years. Bush encroachment includes the spread of local woody species and/or incursion of woody species … and several theories were proposed and developed. The well-regarded theories include: (1) Walter’s two-layer model, (2) Moir’s one-layer model, (3) state-and-transition theory, (4) …
Charis G, Danha G, Muzenda E 2019. Waste valorisation opportunities for bush encroacher biomass in savannah ecosystems: A comparative case analysis of Botswana and Namibia. Procedia Manufacturing 35 974-979
Bush encroachment of savannah ecosystems in countries like Botswana and Namibia has been identified as a major problem threatening biodiversity, grazing land … shows that the issue of bush encroachment in Botswana has been documented from as far back as 1971, though earlier studies were mostly evaluations from a natural resources perspective which …
Nuule WKL 2018. The effect of bush clearing on soil respiration in north-central Namibia: Cheetah conservation fund and Erichsfelde.
… or land use that affects soil respiration are a major concern for global climate change. Bush clearing in north-central Namibia has been used as a solution to problems of bush encroachment. However, the effect of bush clearing on soil processes, such as the carbon …
Southern African Institute for Environmental Assessment (SAIEA) 2015. Strategic environmental assessment of large-scale bush thinning and value addition activities in Namibia.
Bush encroachment remains a major agricultural problem in Namibia, covering about 45 million hectares of the country's savannas, and reducing livestock … for commercial utilisation. Growing interest in the opportunities for value-addition from bush, with support such as the MAWF/GIZ De-bushing Project, raises the issue of significant …
Moringa Enviro-Consultants (MEC) 2022. APP-002319: Bush control and veld managemetn on Farm Uithou 366, Gobabis District, Omaheke Region.
… commercial beef production farm that has its productivity compromised by infestation of invader bush. The veld in most areas of the farm is degraded and is overgrown with undesirable bush encroachment species. Along with various other factors, this poses a serious threat to … reduce the negative impacts and enhance positive impacts associated with the project. … APP-002319: Bush control and veld managemetn on Farm Uithou 366, Gobabis District, Omaheke Region …
Southern African Institute for Environmental Assessment (SAIEA) 2016. Strategic environmental assessment of large-scale bush thinning and value-addition activities in Namibia - Final Report.
Bush encroachment remains a major agricultural problem in Namibia, covering about 45 million hectares of the country's savannas, and reducing livestock … for commercial utilisation. Growing interest in the opportunities for value-addition from bush, with support such as the MAWF/GIZ De-bushing Project, raises the issue of significant …
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Bush thinning SEA Report FINAL FINAL.docx 4.23 MB
Rothauge A 2014. Baseline Assessment for the De-Bushing Programme in Namibia.
… This baseline study attempts to sketch the situation on the ground in mid-2014 in terms of the three major Programme outcomes:  Institutional and political framework … administrative levels that enables increased capacity of land owners to deal with encroacher bush sustainably. Services that provide farmers with targeted advice and information on how to … de-bushing or thinning bush on the farm. … Baseline Assessment for the De-Bushing Programme in Namibia
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Routhage_ Baseline Report on Bush Control 2014.pdf 3.19 MB
Ministry of Agriculture Water and Forestry (MAWF), Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) Control of encroacher bush species in Namibia.
… Encroacher bush species should never be eradicated, but thinned judiciously. Methods to be used for bush control should ensure environmental sustainability. Therefore, all bush harvesting … in the Forestry and Environmental Authorisations Process for Bush Harvesting Activities (2017) guidelines. … Control of encroacher bush species in Namibia
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Control of encroacher bush species in Namibia_Poster.pdf 947.78 KB
Fischer A, Naiman LC, Lowassa A, Randall D, Rentsch D 2014. Explanatory factors for household involvement in illegal bushmeat hunting around Serengeti, Tanzania. Journal for Nature Conservation (22) 491-496
Bushmeat hunting, i.e., the hunting of wildlife for consumption, is a widespread and … enforcement, relative wealth and ethnic background) are related to hunting activities. However, bushmeat hunting is inherently challenging to investigate as it is usually illegal. In this study, conducted in western Serengeti, Tanzania (n = 196 households in 12 villages), we used a variable that can be (and sometimes indeed is) …
Southern African Institute for Environmental Assessment (SAIEA) 2015. Strategic environmental assessment of large-scale bush thinning and value-addition activities in Namibia.
Bush encroachment remains a major agricultural problem in Namibia, covering about 45 million hectares of the country's savannas, and reducing livestock … for commercial utilisation. Growing interest in the opportunities for value-addition from bush, with support such as the MAWF/GIZ De-bushing Project, raises the issue of significant …
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SAIEA - Bush Thinning Stragetic Environmental Assessment 2016.pdf 2.7 MB
Koot SP 2015. White Namibians in tourism and the politics of belonging through Bushmen. Anthropology Southern Africa (38) 4-15
Namibian Bushmen, such as the Hai//om and the Ju/'hoansi, are increasingly involved in the growing, white-dominated tourism industry. In this, white Namibians tend to position Bushmen and themselves as people of nature and conservationists. Elsewhere, whites from southern …
Gröngröft A, de Blécourt M, Classen N, Landschreiber L, Eschenbach A 2018. Impacts of bush encroachment on groundwater recharge - Evidence from 9 years of soil hydrological monitoring in a Namibian thornbush Savanna.
… increasing abundancy of woody species is a widely observed phenomenon, which is addressed as 'bush encroachment'. The causes are discussed controversially (Van Auken 2000, de Klerk 2004, Briggs et al 2005, Ward 2005, Archer 2010, Eldridge et al 2011, O’Connor et al. 2014) and neither measures to avoid the bush thickening … much smaller compared to early times of rangeland management, for example commercial farms in Namibia from the late 1950s to about 30% (de Klerk 2004). … Impacts of bush encroachment on …
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Impacts of bush encroachment on groundwater recharge_2018.PDF 3.44 MB
2020. Biochar from Namibian encroacher bush - a practical guide for producers.
… This is a practical guide for biochar production and application in Namibia. It takes the reader through the production process step-by-step and provides useful information for anyone interested in the topic. The brochure is produced by the GIZ/MEFT Bush Control and Biomass Utilisation Project in close collaboration with NUST BUSH Project, Namibia Biomass Industry Group (N-BiG) and Namibia Charcoal Association …
Rogan MS, Lindsey PA, Tambling CJ, Golabek KA, Chase MJ, Collins K, McNutt JW 2017. Illegal bushmeat hunters compete with predators and threaten wild herbivore populations in a global tourism hotspot. Biological Conservation (210) 233-242
… Illegal bushmeat hunting is a global threat to wildlife, but its secretive and unregulated nature … its impacts on wildlife and wildlife-based industries. We investigated the scale of illegal bushmeat hunting in the Okavango Delta, Botswana (~ 20,000 km2) to assess its potential contribution to wildlife population declines. Approximately 1,800 illegal hunters each harvest an average of 320 kg of bushmeat annually, though some …
Turning bush encroachment into an opportunity.
… The De-bushing Advisory Service (DAS) is a national information platform and focal point for questions relating to bush encroachment, bush thinning and value addition to bush biomass. We offer support to emerging, communal and …
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Turning bush encroachment into an opportunity.pdf 4.86 MB
Honsbein D, Njembo S 2020. Labour-based encroacher bush harvesting guidelines.
… In 2016, GIZ commissioned a study on labour-based bush thinning/harvesting. The overall aim of the study was "to conceptualise the labour-intensive methodology of bush thinning in Namibia", while striving to achieve the National Development Plans' (NDPs) goals such as …
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Labour_based encroacher bush harvesting guidelines.pdf 1.37 MB
Ludwig A, Meyer H, Nauss T 2016. Automatic classification of Google Earth images for a larger scale monitoring of bush encroachment in South Africa. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation 50 89-94
Bush encroachment of savannas and grasslands is a common form of land degradation in the … Africa. To assess the carrying capacity of the land and to understand underlaying processes of bush encroachment, continuous monitoring of this phenomenon is needed. The aim of this study is to provide training sites for satellite-based monitoring of bush encroachment in South Africa on a medium spatial resolution satellite sensor (e.g. MODIS or …
Marrocoli S, Gatiso TT, Morgan D, Nielsen MR, Kühl H 2018. Environmental Uncertainty and Self-monitoring in the Commons: A Common-pool Resource Experiment Framed Around Bushmeat Hunting in the Republic of Congo. Ecological Economics (149) 274-284
Bushmeat is often a common pool resource issue and is a major threat to wildlife in west and … in a variety of social-ecological systems. However, studies of self-monitoring schemes in bushmeat hunting systems are scarce, and there are no empirical studies of the impact of self-monitoring on bushmeat hunting. We used a lab-in-the-field common pool resource experiment framed around a …
Shifa RI 2017. Assessment of carbon stock and selected soil fertility indicators in a bush encroached savanna at Erichsfelde farm, Namibia.
Bush encroachment is a form of land degradation common predominantly in semi-arid areas of the … of resource productivity make bush encroachment a serious environmental and economic problem in Namibia. Despite these negative effects, bush encroachment offers potential woody carbon stock … with systematic sampling along transects. For vegetation surveys in each site, five 20m x 10m plots were set up along two line transects, while established allometric equations were …
Nghikembua M, Harris J, Tregenza T, Marker L 2016. Spatial and temporal habitat use by GPS collared male cheetahs in modified bushland habitat. Open Journal of Forestry 6 269-280
… and other apex predators are threatened by human-wildlife conflict and habitat degradation. Bush encroachment creates one of the biggest forms of habitat change, thus it is important to … impact this has on habitat use. We investigated habitat preferences of five male cheetahs in Namibian farmlands degraded by bush encroachment. Cheetahs were tracked using satellite based … (GSM) collars providing a higher resolution on ranging behavior. We aimed to investigate: 1) habitat characteristics; 2) evidence for habitat selection; 3) temporal activity …

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